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1.Rank the following terms from largest to smallest: ecosystem,

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1.Rank the following terms from largest to smallest: ecosystem, population, biosphere, community.

a.biosphere (largest)
ecosystem
community
population (smallest)
b.ecosystem (largest)
biosphere
community
population (smallest)
c.biosphere (largest)
ecosystem
population
community (smallest)
d.ecosystem (largest)
community
biosphere
population (smallest)
2.Which of the following includes the other three: ecosystem, population, biosphere, community.

a. The ecosystem contains all the communities on the earth, all the biospheres on the earth, and all of the populations on the earth.
b.The community contains all the ecosystems on the earth, all the biospheres on the earth, and all of the populations on the earth.
c.The population contains all the ecosystems on the earth, all the communities on the earth, and all of the biospheres on the earth.
d.The biosphere contains all the ecosystems on the earth, all the communities on the earth, and all of the populations on the earth.
For questions 3–7, consider the following things in your front yard: cardinals, robins, rocks, raccoons, bees, decaying leaves, mosquitos, humans, beetles, water, blue grass, sunlight, moss, soil, worms, pine trees, and the air (containing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide).

3.What are the biotic components of your front yard?

a. The biotic components are the blue grass, moss, and pine trees.
b.The biotic components are the cardinals, raccoons, bees, mosquitoes, beetles, blue grass, moss, worms, and pine trees.
c.The biotic components are the cardinals, robins, raccoons, bees, mosquitoes, humans, beetles, blue grass, moss, worms, and pine trees.
d.The biotic components are the cardinals, robins, raccoons, bees, mosquitoes, humans, beetles, blue grass, moss, worms, and pine trees, rocks, decaying leaves.
4.What are the abiotic components of your front yard?

a. The abiotic components are the rocks, water, and soil.
b.The abiotic components are the air containing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide.
c.The abiotic components are the decaying leaves, water, and sunlight.
d.The abiotic components are the rocks, decaying leaves, water, sunlight, soil, and the air containing oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide.
5.How many different populations are there in your front yard?

a. There are 7 different populations.
b.There are 9 different populations.
c.There are 11 different populations.
d.There are 13 different populations.
6.Identify the components of the community in your front yard.

The front-yard community consists of the following populations:

a. cardinal, robin, raccoon, bee, mosquito, human, beetle, blue grass, moss, worm, pine tree.
b.cardinal, robin, raccoon, bee, mosquito, beetle, worm.
c.blue grass, moss, pine tree.
d.cardinal, robin, raccoon, bee, mosquito, beetle, blue grass, moss, worm, pine tree.
7.Identify the components of the ecosystem in your front yard.

The front-yard ecosystem consists of the following populations:

a. robin, bee, mosquito, beetle, worm, raccoon.
b.robin, raccoon, bee, mosquito, human, beetle, blue grass, moss, worm, pine tree, rocks, decaying leaves, water, sunlight, soil, air containing oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide.
c.decaying leaves, water, sunlight, soil, air containing oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide.
d.robin, raccoon, bee, mosquito, beetle, moss, worm, water, sunlight, soil, air containing oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide.
8.Think about the term biodiversity. To what does it refer and what does the biodiversity level of a community or ecosystem indicate? Which answer below is not correct.

a. Biodiversity is the measure of the different types of organisms in a population.
b.Biodiversity is the measure of the different types of organisms in an ecosystem.
c.Biodiversity is the measure of the different types of organisms in a biosphere.
d.Biodiversity is the measure of the different types of organisms in a community.
9.Why are population studies important in ecology?

Population studies help scientists to:

a.gauge the overall health and vitality of populations and ecosystems
b.understand and predict how populations and ecosystems will respond to various diseases and environmental conditions
c.predict the future of populations and ecosystems
d.all of the above
10.The features of populations that scientists study to determine the overall health of populations are:

a.growth pattern, growth rate, density, size
b.size, distribution, growth rate, and growth pattern
c.distribution, size, density, growth rate
d.size, density, distribution, growth rate, and growth pattern
11.What factors play a role in determining the size and growth of populations?

The size and growth of a population is influenced by the following:

a.the gene pool of a population
b.the amount and availability of useable resources and nutrients
c.the birth rate and death rate of the population
d.all of the above
12.Consider a population composed of 25 blue jays. What is a quantitative feature of this population?

a.blue is the color of the birds
b.the type of bird is a blue jay
c.the population size of 25
d.all of the above
13.Consider a population composed of 25 blue jays. What is a qualitative feature of this population?

a.the type of bird is a blue jay
b.blue is the color of the birds
c.the population size of 25
d.all of the above
For questions 14-17, consider the following description of a wooded area near your home: The wooded area is 100 feet wide and 10 feet long. In the year 1999 there were 1,700 crickets in the wooded area, and in the year 2001 there were 3,000 crickets in the wooded area.

14.What was the size of the cricket population in the year 1999?

a. In the year 1999, the size of the cricket population was 1,700 crickets per square foot.
b.In the year 1999, the size of the cricket population was 1,700 crickets.
c.In the year 1999, the size of the cricket population was 3,000 crickets.
d.In the year 1999, the size of the cricket population was 3,000 crickets per square foot.
15.What was the density of the cricket population in the year 2001?

a. In the year 2001, the density of the cricket population was 3,000 crickets.
b.In the year 2001, the density of the cricket population was 1,700 crickets.
c.In the year 2001, the density of the cricket population was 3 crickets per square foot.
d.In the year 2001, the density of the cricket population was 1.7 crickets per square foot.
16.What was the net growth of this cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001?

a. The net growth of this cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 650 crickets.
b.The net growth of this cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 1,300 crickets.
c.The net growth of this cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 1,700 crickets.
d.The net growth of this cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 3,000 crickets.
17.What was the growth rate of the cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001?

a. The growth rate of the cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 650 crickets per year.
b.The growth rate of the cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 1,300 crickets per year.
c.The growth rate of the cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 1,700 crickets.
d.The growth rate of the cricket population between the years 1999 and 2001 was 3,000 crickets.
For questions 18-22, use the following set of observations on the size of the dandelion population in your backyard:

Time Population Size
(Number of Dandelions)
1970 11
1971 12
1972 14
1973 27
1974 66
1975 91
1976 100
1977 100
1978 100
1979 10018.How many data points are there in the table above?

a.There are 5 data points
b.There are 10 data points
c.There are 15 data points
d.There are 20 data points
19.What are the variables in this data set?

a.time
b.population size
c.all of the above
d.none of the above
20.What type of growth pattern does this dandelion population exhibit?

a. This dandelion population exhibits an S-shaped growth pattern.
b.This dandelion population exhibits an exponential growth pattern.
c.This dandelion population exhibits an exponential, J-shaped growth pattern.
d.This dandelion population exhibits a linear growth pattern.
21.What does the graph indicate about the dandelion population in your backyard during the period of 1971 to 1974?

a. During the period of 1971 to 1974 the dandelion population exhibited a phase of linear growth.
b.During the period of 1971 to 1974 the dandelion population exhibited a phase of S-shaped growth.
c.During the period of 1971 to 1974 the dandelion population exhibited a phase of exponential growth.
d.None of the above.
22.The graph indicates that the size of the dandelion population remained relatively stable from 1975 to 1979.

a.true
b.false
23.What factors play a role in determining the overall health of a community?

The overall health of a community is influenced by the following factors:

a.the level of biodiversity in the community and the overall health and vitality of each of the populations in the community
b.the geographic location and size of the community
c.the amount of useable resources in the area in which the community lives and the types of adaptive traits in the various populations of the community
d.all of the above
24.What are the general pathways through which resources cycle in ecosystems?

a. Resources cycle in an ecosystem through two general mechanisms: biotic cycling and abiotic cycling.
b.Resources cycle in an ecosystem through two general mechanisms: biotic cycling and biotic-abiotic cycling.
c.a and b
d.none of the above
25.Explain the flow of resources and nutrients through the trophic levels of a feeding chain.

a.Organisms in level 4 are eaten by organisms in level 3;
organisms in level 3 are eaten by organisms in level 2;
organisms in level 2 are eaten by organisms in level 1; and so forth.
The living organisms in level 1 are called producers because they convert light energy from the sun to make glucose molecules for use by all other living organisms. Organisms in levels 2 and higher are called consumers because they eat other living organisms and gain from them at least some of the nutrients they require to sustain life.

b.Organisms in level 1 are eaten by organisms in level 4;
organisms in level 2 are eaten by organisms in level 3;
organisms in level 4 are eaten by organisms in level 2; and so forth.
The living organisms in level 4 are called producers because they convert light energy from the sun to make glucose molecules for use by all other living organisms. Organisms in levels 3 and lower are called consumers because they eat other living organisms and gain from them at least some of the nutrients they require to sustain life.

c.Organisms in level 1 are eaten by organisms in level 2;
organisms in level 2 are eaten by organisms in level 3;
organisms in level 3 are eaten by organisms in level 4; and so forth.
The living organisms in level 1 are called producers because they convert light energy from the sun to make glucose molecules for use by all other living organisms. Organisms in levels 2 and higher are called consumers because they eat other living organisms and gain from them at least some of the nutrients they require to sustain life.

d.none of the above
26.Distinguish between a food chain and a food web.

a.A food chain is a set of overlapping and interconnected food chains.
A food web is a linear series of feeding steps by which energy and nutrients are transferred from one organism to the next.

b.A food chain is a linear series of feeding steps by which energy is transferred from one organism to the next.
A food web is a set of overlapping food chains.

c.A food chain is a linear series of feeding steps by which energy and nutrients are transferred from one organism to the next. A food web is a set of overlapping and interconnected food chains.
d.A food chain is a linear series of feeding steps by which nutrients are transferred from one organism to the next.
A food web is a set of interconnected food chains.

27.What are the major biogeochemical cycles in ecosystems, and which resources are transferred and transformed in each cycle?

a.Carbon cycle – carbon
Hydrologic cycle – water
Nitrogen cycle – nitrogen
Phosphorus cycle – phosphorus
b.Carbon cycle – carbon
Nitrogen cycle – nitrogen
Phosphorus cycle – phosphorus
c.Carbon cycle – carbon
Nitrogen cycle – nitrogen
d.Hydrologic cycle – water
Phosphorus cycle – phosphorus
28.How are the production of ATP, proteins, DNA, RNA, and membranes in cells impacted by the biogeochemical cycles of an ecosystem?

a.
■The production of ATP (energy-storage molecules) in cells is impacted by the phosphorus cycle because phosphorus is a critical building block of ATP molecules.
■The production of DNA and RNA are impacted by both the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles because both nitrogen and phosphorus are integral parts of the nucleotide subunits used to build nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
b.
■The production of new proteins in cells is impacted by the nitrogen cycle because nitrogen is an integral part of the amino acid subunits used to build proteins.
■The production of membranes in cells is impacted by the phosphorus cycle because phosphorus is a critical component of the phospholipid molecules used to build both cell membranes and organelle membranes.
c.
■The production of ATP (energy-storage molecules) in cells is impacted by the phosphorus cycle because phosphorus is a critical building block of ATP molecules.
■The production of new proteins in cells is impacted by the nitrogen cycle because nitrogen is an integral part of the amino acid subunits used to build proteins.
■The production of DNA and RNA are impacted by both the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles because both nitrogen and phosphorus are integral parts of the nucleotide subunits used to build nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
■The production of membranes in cells is impacted by the phosphorus cycle because phosphorus is a critical component of the phospholipid molecules used to build both cell membranes and organelle membranes.
d.
■The production of ATP (energy-storage molecules) in cells is impacted by the phosphorus cycle because phosphorus is a critical building block of ATP molecules.
■The production of new proteins in cells is impacted by the nitrogen cycle because nitrogen is an integral part of the amino acid subunits used to build proteins.
■The production of DNA and RNA are impacted by both the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles because both nitrogen and phosphorus are integral parts of the nucleotide subunits used to build nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).
29.Under what conditions is the overall health of the biosphere threatened by the activities of living organisms?

a.irreversibly deplete the earth's useable and renewable resources and degrade the quality of vital and useable resources
b.release molecules into the environment that are toxic to living organisms and disrupt the natural biogeochemical cycles of an ecosystem
c.both a and b
d.none of the above
30.What general factors have contributed to many of the environmental problems facing our global society?

a.Industrial activities are largely to blame for the major environmental problems facing our global society today
b.Humankind's rapid population growth is to blame for the major environmental problems facing our global society today
c.Modern technological and industrial activities are to blame for the major environmental problems facing our global society today
d.Humankind's rapid population growth and modern technological and industrial activities are largely to blame for the major environmental problems facing our global society today
31.List the major environmental problems facing the world today as a result of humankind's rapid population growth and modern technological and industrial activities.

a.pollution (of air, water, and land), acid rain, smog, global warming, ozone thinning
b.decreased water quality, decreased amount of suitable land for farming, grazing, and human habitation, deforestation, decreased soil fertility, water shortages, decreased fossil-fuel reserves
c.global warming and the greenhouse effect
d.a and b
Read the following news report and then answer the questions below. In answering these questions be sure to consider everything you have learned in this course.

The China Connection
By all rights the lush rain forest on Kauai shouldn't exist. The Hawaiian island's soil is nutrient-poor, yet somehow sustains plants. Oliver Chadwick, a soil scientist at the University of California at Santa Barbara has discovered Kauai's secret: phosphorus blown to the island on dust from central Asia, more than 3,700 miles away.

Chadwick, who has tramped through Kauai's forests for more than a decade, long suspected that prevailing westerly winds rained enriching dust on the island. But only recently, after careful comparison of soil samples from Asia with Kauai's soil, was he able to pinpoint the origin of an airborne fertilizer: a huge desert in western China called Takla Makan. "It's an enormous basin that's a tremendous source of dust," he says.

Other rain forests probably depend on long-distance transport, too. Dust from the Sahara Desert, for example, may support the Amazon. Says Chadwick: "Every part of the planet is interconnected through the atmosphere." (Discover, May 1999, p. 19)

32.What is the movement of dust from central Asia to Kauai via wind an example of?

a. The movement of dust from central Asia to Kauai via wind is an example of a biogeochemical pathway, specifically the hydrologic cycle.
b.The movement of dust from central Asia to Kauai via wind is an example of a biogeochemical pathway, specifically the phosphorus cycle.
c.The movement of dust from central Asia to Kauai via wind is an example of a biogeochemical pathway, specifically the nitrogen cycle.
d.The movement of dust from central Asia to Kauai via wind is an example of a biogeochemical pathway, specifically the carbon cycle.
33.What are the biotic and abiotic portions of the Kauai rainforest ecosystem mentioned above?

a. The biotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of all of the living organisms found in the rainforest. The abiotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of the soil and water found on this island.
b.The biotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of all of the living organisms found in the rainforest. The abiotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of the soil, wind, and water found on this island, as well as the dust and phosphorus that has blown there from China.
c.The biotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of the soil, wind and water found in the rainforest. The abiotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of all the living organisms found on this island.
d.The biotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of the soil, wind, water, and living organisms found in the rainforest. The abiotic portion of the Kauai rainforest consists of the dust and phosphorus that has blown there from China.
34.Of what use is the phosphorus dust from China to the living organisms in the Kauai rainforest?

a. The cells of the living organisms in the Kauai rainforest use the phosphorus to make the phospholipid subunits of membranes, used to protect cells and to partition cells into functional compartments (organelles).
b.The cells of the living organisms in the Kauai rainforest use the phosphorus to make ATP energy-storage molecules, which are used to power the many chemical (photosynthesis, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle) and genetic (mitosis, meiosis) processes of living things, as well as their physical movements.
c.The cells of the living organisms in the Kauai rainforest use the phosphorus to make the nucleotide (A, C, G, T, U) subunits of DNA and RNA, which are required by cells and living organisms for the storage and transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next, and provide cells with the instructions to make the proteins they need to function appropriately.
d.all of the above
35.What might be a possible consequence of permanent shifts in the prevailing winds that would no longer bring dust from China's Takla Makan desert to the Kauai rainforest?

a. If phosphorus-rich dust from the Takla Makan desert is no longer transported to the Kauai rainforest, then the amount of phosphorus present in the Kauai rainforest may be insufficient to support the current amount and types of the living organisms living there. Under these conditions, phosphorus would become a limiting factor to population growth in the Kauai rainforest. The various living organisms in the rainforest would then begin competing for the limited amount of phosphorus.
b.The living organisms that are able to most efficiently uptake phosphorus from the soil are those that are most likely to survive, while organisms that are unable to efficiently uptake phosphorus from the soil are most likely to die off. The varying ability of living organisms to acquire and use phosphorus is determined by the genes of each species, which have been selected over long periods of time as a result of evolution. As some living organisms and species die off, the biodiversity of the rainforest decreases.
c.both a and b
d.none of the above
Submitted: 2 years ago.
Category: Homework
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