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1. Instrumental values can be best described as Useless

Customer Question

1. Instrumental values can be best described as:

Useless since they have on intrinsic worth.

Useful because they can be used as a means to produce or achieve other values or things of worth.

Useful only when they are legislated into law.

None of the above.
Question 2
Kantian ethics can best be characterized by:

The consultation of an outside source, such as a book or person, for guidance.

The belief that a person must decide what course of action is proper based on that person’s own set of beliefs or feelings.

Determining which course of action produces the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people.

A set of universal moral rules based on reasoning which must be applied regardless of consequences.
Question 3
One major criticism of ethical relativism is that:

Moral and ethical rules are too rigid and fixed over time.

Some persons would take actions which they believe to be moral, but which most persons in a society believe to be immoral.

Decisions require the measurement of qualities which are not subject to precise measurements.

Decisions are not allowed to take into account the mores or customs in a society.
Question 4
According to Kant, morality is fundamentally based on:

What society believes is moral.

A determination of the greater good.

Reason and rationality.

What the law says is legal.
Question 5
One criticism of ethical relativism is that:

It requires people to be culturally competent.

Some persons would take actions that they believe to be moral, but which most people in society might believe to be immoral.

Decisions require the measurement of quantities and qualities that are not subject to precise measurements.

It really requires one to take several courses in philosophy and ethics to figure out what is moral based on this ethical doctrine.
Question 6
Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean most accurately means that:

One should not be mean to one’s co-workers since being nice and polite is an instrumental value.

“Nice guys finish last.”

The moral choice is a rationally determined mean between two extremes representing deficiency and access.

Being mean to a person for spite and malice is disrespectful and demeaning and fails the Categorical Imperative.
Question 7
In business negotiations, Carol, the chief executive officer of Design Associates, Inc., follows Kant’s Categorical Imperative, which

Encourages the accumulation of as much personal wealth as possible

Mandates respectful treatment of others in all situations

Permits taking advantage of others in financial terms but only in business dealings

Requires an increase in business profits over a certain period since profits are essential to survival.
Question 8
Ethics as conscience or intuition raises which of the following problems?

Subjective feelings can be viewed as intuited moral truths.

Consciences vary greatly and one person’s intuition may be as good as another’s.

This ethical theory lacks objective principles and standards to evaluate actions.

All of the above are problems.
Question 9
Which of the following is not an accurate statement?

The fact that there are differences among societies in moral positions means logically that there are no, and can never be, any moral standards or rules.

The doctrine of legal positivism would maintain that a business person rely on the law as a basis for decision-making when confronted with a moral question.

According to the Hobbesian view of legal positivism, there can be no such thing as a bad, immoral, or unjust law.

According to Bentham, Utilitarianism is an objective, scientific, mathematical, and empirical ethical theory.
Question 10
The “golden rule,” “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you,” is most directly reflected in which moral theory?

Ethical relativism.

Utilitarianism.

Ethical fundamentalism.

Kantian ethics.


Apply Ethics

Question 1
The Sophists, who were known as respected teachers in ancient Greece, became vilified through time, and now have the negative words "sophist" and "sophistry" associated with them, because:

They emphasized that there was no universal truth in morality, ethics, justice, and religion.

They placed an emphasis on debate, rhetorical skills, and argumentation regardless of any underlying truth.

They were known as the first business consultants and emphasized making money and securing power by whatever means necessary, and then getting good publicity for being socially responsible.

All of the above.
Question 2
Edward Executive makes $100,000 a year. Ned Newguy, a recent business school graduate, is willing to do Ed's job for $55,000. Ed has been with the company for 30 years. In a cost-saving move, the company fires Ed and replaces him with the younger and cheaper Ned Newguy. This action could be

Illegal

Immoral pursuant to Kantian ethics

Moral pursuant to Ethical Egoism

All of the above.
Question 3
Which of the following is true about modern business corporations?

The societal expectation is that a corporation should just make money legally and not worry about the local community or society.

Since the corporation is not a real person it can never be judged from an ethical point of view.

The corporate vice-president of ethics has the power to veto what he or she considers as immoral corporate actions, but the veto can be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the board of directors.

None of the above.
Question 4
Bribery of foreign government officials can be:

Legal as a "facilitating and expediting" exception under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

Moral pursuant to Utilitarian ethics if all the stakeholders benefit.

Moral pursuant to Ethical Relativism.

All of the above.
Question 5
A satisfactory approach to moral business decision-making would encompass:

Doing well for the company as per Ethical Egoism.

Acting morally for the "greater good" as per Utilitarianism.

Achieving this "greater good" without demeaning or disrespecting anyone as per Kantian ethics.

All of the above.
Question 6
Off-shoring and out-sourcing of an IT department to India can be:

Moral pursuant to ethical egoism for the company.

Moral pursuant to Utilitarianism if a majority of the company's affected stakeholders benefit.

Legal if the Plant Closing law (WARN Act) is complied with.

All of the above.
Question 7
If the conduct of International Software Corporation is found to be unethical, it could suffer
Answer

Lost profits

Negative publicity

Adverse legal consequences if the conduct also violated the law

All of the above.
Question 8
Today, critics of the corporation argue for various corporate governance reform proposals to improve the legal, moral, and socially responsible behavior of the corporation. Which of the following is the most convincing argument for these proposals?

These proposals are advisable because corporate managers should never have any duty other than to maximize profits for the shareholders

These proposals are necessary because market forces invariably operate to deter any corporate misbehavior

These proposals are necessary because existing laws, though extensive, still have moral and social responsibility "gaps"

These proposals are inadvisable because they will reduce corporate ability to respond quickly to changing business conditions and therefore will create allocational inefficiency.
Question 9
Fran, an executive with Global Sales Corporation, has to decide whether to market a useful product that nonetheless might have undesirable side-effects for a small number of users. What ethical theory would the Sophists advise her to use so that her firm can morally market the product?

Kantian ethics

Corporate Social Responsibility

Utilitarianism

Last Resort theory.
Question 10
EarthLast, Inc. is a heavy polluter. Which of the following would be a philosophical ethical dilemma for Mr. Bill, a manager at EarthLast?

Whether or not the Christian Bible allows for pollution

Whether or not federal or state law allows for pollution

Whether or not pollution is permissible under Mr. Bill's moral beliefs of right or wrong

None of the above

KNOW RESPONSIBILITY

Question 1

University of Chicago Professor Milton Friedman famously said about social responsibility:

The social responsibility of business is to make money legally.

Big multinational corporations must solve all the social problems in the world.

Business is immoral for not helping out in the community.

When in Rome, do as the Romans.
Question 2
Which of the following is a correct statement regarding the definition of the term "social responsibility" in a business context?

A socially responsible business person believes that the formal legal law is inferior to universal moral and ethical principles that can be determined by intuition.

Social responsibility is the branch of philosophy that focuses on morally right and wrong behavior.

Social responsibility is based on current societal views as to how and the extent a business should contribute to charities and civic organizations and be involved in helping the community.

A business cannot adhere to social responsibility principles and the doctrine of ethical egoism since both are always mutually exclusive.
Question 3
Which of the following statements is incorrect?

Basing one's behavior on the adage, "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you," is part of Kantian ethics.

An ethical theory that says each person is presumed to have entered into an agreement with all others in society to obey moral rules that are necessary for people to live in peace and harmony is called Social Contract ethics.

A doctrine that says that a corporation should consider its presence in the community and society and the effects its actions have on persons or groups other than the shareholders is called Corporate Social Responsibility.

A theory of social responsibility that says that business must solve global problems such as poverty and disease is called Legal Nonfeasance.
Question 4
A conservative interpretation and definition of corporate "social responsibility" would typically reflect the view that:

Corporate social responsibility should be mandated and closely regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States.

There is insufficient government regulation in the U.S. in place to deal with corporate socially responsible decision-making.

Social responsibility decisions in business should be decided on Kant's Categorical Imperative since that is the highest ethical principle.

Profit-maximization by lawful means is socially responsible behavior and that market forces will deter corporate socially irresponsible conduct.
Question 5
Social responsibility can be best described as:

Acting legally

Acting morally

Taking an active part in one's community affairs and contributing to charities

All of the above.
Question 6
Which of the following is a correct statement regarding the definition of the term "social responsibility" in a business context?

A socially responsible business person believes that the formal legal law is inferior to universal moral and ethical principles that can be determined by intuition.

Social responsibility is the branch of philosophy that focuses on morally right and wrong behavior.

Social responsibility is based on current societal views as to how and the extent a business should contribute to charities and civic organizations and be involved in helping the community.

A business cannot adhere to social responsibility principles and the doctrine of ethical egoism since both are always mutually exclusive.


SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Question 1
Which of the following are among the assertions typically made by "socially responsible" critics of the modern corporation's activities?

Many large corporations have been focused too much on maximizing profits for shareholders and on granting bonuses to executives.

Corporations should not merely obey the law but rather should seek and observe social responsibility standards higher than the law regarding charitable and civic activities.

Corporate profit-seeking at times involves unacceptable social costs.

All of the above.
Question 2
As to the issue of whether a company should be a "socially responsible" one, the Ethical Egoists would likely say:

When in Rome, do as the Romans.

Justice is the will of the stronger.

Charity begins at home.

Save the whales.
Question 3
Silvano is a successful entrepreneur but his company is not involved in any civic affairs or charitable activities in the local community. Silvano likely could be characterized as:

Guilty of legal nonfeasance and subject to prosecution.

Immoral pursuant to the Last Resort principle for not "lending a hand" in the community.

Immoral pursuant to Legal Positivism.

Socially irresponsible.
Question 4
Which statement is incorrect regarding the application of the term "social responsibility" to business?

Social responsibility by business in the form of civic and charitable contributions to the local community typically would be a consideration for upper management in most corporation's today.

Today's business executives and managers are well advised to pay attention on the changing perceptions in society as to what constitutes socially responsible behavior by business.

Social responsibility is the ethical notion that every person should act only on those principles that he or she as a rational actor would prescribe as moral law.

Social responsibility means that a company is well advised to consider its social responsibility reputation in the community.


Part 7
Question 1
Which of the following is the most accurate statement?

A small shareholder can never be held morally responsible for what a large corporation does.

One function of a corporate ethics audit will be to conduct a moral audit of the firm to ascertain if it is acting morally.

The principal purpose of a moral audit of the firm is to ensure that the company is acting in a legal manner.

A corporate code of ethics needs only to restate minimum legal principles and rules in its "practices" section.
Question 2
Which of the following is an accurate statement?

If business fails to be sufficiently social responsible it is thereby acting immorally too.

A corporation is recognized legal "person" but it is not a moral "person" for the purposes of ethical evaluation of corporate activities.

According to the Friedman view of the corporation, it has no moral or social responsibility, and its only obligation is to make money legally.

The corporation only is obligated morally to its shareholders, and thus owes no moral responsibilities to any other stakeholder groups.
Question 3
The local government in conjunction with Big Construction Corporation has proposed demolishing 800 of 2000 units in a low-income housing project that has become crime-ridden and in poor repair. The 800 units will be replaced with 300 units, half of which will be for low-income families, and half of which will be for moderate-income families. Some persons object to the plan because there will be fewer low-income housing units after these changes are completed. This proposal

Could be deemed moral under Utilitarianism since a greater good for the community and the majority of the residents would be achieved

Could be deemed immoral under Kantian ethics if no suitable housing arrangements are made for the lower-income residents who are displaced by the project

Could be deemed a socially responsible action if Big Construction Company donates substantial equipment, personnel, and material to the project as well as to Habitat for Humanity

All of the above.
Question 4
Which of the following questions should be answered first in the process of ethical decision-making in business?

Is the action profitable?

Is the action moral?

Is the action a socially responsible one?

Is the action good public relations?

Question 5
Which of the following is NOT a correct statement?

A company's code of ethics must demand altruistic behavior from the firm's employees.

All members of a profession are professionals but not all professionals are members of a profession.

Business management cannot yet be regarded as a profession because business management lacks a general code of ethics for managers as well as the typical autonomy of the traditional professions.

In recent years, businesses have taken a more active role in dealing with social problems.
Question 6
The theory of business social responsibility that holds that a business owes duties to the various constituencies such as customers and employees in addition to shareholders is best described as:

Moral minimum

Maximizing profits

Stakeholder interests

Corporate legal status
Question 7
Which of the following is a correct statement?

The legal law ultimately rests on coercion and force, whereas ethics relies on persuasion and social sanctions to enforce moral rules.

Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from general principles or definitions.

Socrates thought that obtaining knowledge was impossible and thus the search for knowledge was a waste of time and effort.

An ethics based on one's conscience or religion is a very scientific form of ethics since appeals to one's conscience or intuition as a moral guide are objective and impersonal and not subject to rationalization.
Question 8
Gamma, Inc., a U.S. corporation, makes a large "side payment" to the minister of commerce of another country for a very favorable business contract. In the United States, this payment generally would be considered
Answer

illegal and unethical.

illegal only.

neither illegal nor unethical.

unethical only.
Question 9
Members of a profession generally have mandatory:

Legal obligations to the profession and society.

Moral obligations based on the Code of Ethics of the profession.

Social responsibility obligations required by the profession.

All of the above.
Question 10
C.E.O. Carlos believes his corporation can be influential and should be responsible for helping to solve many social problems. Carlos believes his corporation should address problems above and beyond those actually caused by the corporation. Which of the following theories does Carlos most likely subscribe to:

Legal Positivism

Maximization of profits

Machiavellian ethics

Social responsibility.
Submitted: 3 years ago.
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