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What is not true knowledge gained through scientific investigation?

Resolved Question:

Which of the following is not true regarding knowledge gained through scientific investigation? 
This knowledge can be used to prove or disprove religious beliefs. 
Scientific knowledge can be used to improve human life through technology. 
This knowledge has resulted in more efficient sources of energy and better health care. 
This information can be used to detect problems at an early stage and correct mistakes. 
Society chooses how scientific information should be used.

2. How does scientific information in peer-reviewed journals differ from that in newspapers? 
Information is more technical; readers usually require a background in the field in order to understand the article. 
The article is written by a reporter, not the researcher. 
Articles often include political, ethical, and economic ramifications of the scientific findings. 
Information is less in-depth and easily understood by the average reader. 
Information is not approved by other scientists before its publication.

3. Which of the following sources of scientific information is the most technical? (Points: 1)
general interest news magazines 
newspapers 
nonfictional books 
peer-reviewed journals 
science magazines

4. The process by which living organisms maintain a fairly constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment is known as: (Points: 1)
metabolism. 
biology. 
homeostasis. 
evolution. 
chemistry.

5. The process by which embryonic cells go through functional and structural changes to become specialized is: (Points: 1)
metabolism. 
homeostasis. 
differentiation. 
in vitro fertilization. 
development.

6. Which of the following is not true regarding receptor proteins? (Points: 1)
They are used to receive and transmit information across the plasma membrane. 
All cells have the same receptor proteins. 
When a receptor protein binds to a molecule, a series of biochemical reactions occur that eventually cause changes to occur in the cell. 
The molecule that binds to a receptor protein does not enter the cell. 
Receptor proteins bind to a specific molecule or group of molecules.

7. Which of the following is not a function of the skin? (Points: 1)
production of vitamin D 
storage of calcium 
protection from dehydration 
defense from microorganisms 
regulation of body temperature

8. Which of the following membranes lines the airways and digestive tract? (Points: 1)
serous 
cutaneous 
membranous 
synovial 
mucous

9. Bulk movement of water across plasma membranes and the exchange of oxygen from blood into cells are similar in that the method of transport is by (Points: 1)
facilitated transport. 
endocytosis. 
diffusion. 
active transport. 
sodium-potassium pumps

10. If diabetes is left untreated, which of the following could develop as a result? (Points: 1)
neural disorders 
kidney failure 
blindness 
cardiovascular disorders 
all of the above

11. The process by which an embryo undergoes rapid changes in form and shape is: (Points: 1)
cleavage. 
fertilization. 
morphogenesis. 
implantation. 
differentiation.

12. Research on the aging process shows that wounds of the elderly heal more slowly and that they are more susceptible to disease. These are problems associated with an aging ________ system. (Points: 1)
respiratory 
immune 
integumentary 
digestive 
endocrine

13. Which of the following is not true of thyroxine? (Points: 1)
It is secreted by the parathyroid gland. 
It regulates the production of ATP. 
Like triiodothyronine, thyroxine contains iodine. 
It binds to receptors in target cell nuclei and activates genes. 
An increase in thyroxine results in an increase in the basal metabolic rate.

14. Which of the following is true regarding estrogen and progesterone? (Points: 1)
They are secreted by the ovaries. 
They are released during a female's reproductive years. 
They regulate the menstrual cycle. 
They stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics. 
all of the above

15. Which of the following genotypes results in a female phenotype? (Points: 1)
XY 
XYY 

XXY 
both X and XXY

16. Variations of homologous genes that result in differences in structure and function are: (Points: 1)
alleles. 
loci. 
autosomes. 
dominant. 
linked.

17. Which of the following is true regarding Klinefelter syndrome? (Points: 1)
sterility and shows mild mental impairment 
female phenotype 
XYY genotype

due to nondisjunction of chromosomes after fertilization 
trisomy 18 genotype

18. Red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. Assume that mom is a carrier and dad is color blind. What is the chance that their son will inherit red-green color blindness? (Points: 1)
0% 
25% 
50% 
75% 
100%

19. Which of the following is not true regarding the circulatory system? (Points: 1)
This system ensures that waste products are removed from all tissues of the body. 
This system is made up of the blood vessels, heart, and blood. 
The circulatory system has an important role in the exchange of gases in the lungs. 
During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system. 
This system carries excess water and salts to the urinary system.

20. Which of the following is not true regarding the complement system? (Points: 1)
This system involves a group of at least 20 proteins found in the blood plasma. 
During an infection, one protein in this system activates the next in a cascade of reactions. 
Some components of this system stimulate eosinophils to release histamine. 
Activated components of this system adhere to bacterial cell walls and then put holes in these cell walls. 
Some components of this system stick to the walls of bacterial cells, marking them for phagocytosis.

21. When a blood vessel gets damaged, contractions of smooth muscle referred to as ____help constrict the vessels to reduce blood flow. (Points: 1)
vascular spasms 
hemostasis 
homeostasis 
formed elements 
phagocytosis

22. Blood doping, practiced by many athletes involved in the Tour de France and other sports involves the illegal use of drugs to (Points: 1)
increase circulation. 
increase the amount of oxygen carried in the blood. 
decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. 
elevate the rate of hemostasis. 
increase red bone marrow.

23. Early campaigns of the 19th century that focused on sanitation, hygiene, housing, and nutrition had little effect in controlling communicable disease due to flawed rationale based on theories of miasma or contagion. (Points: 1)
True
False

24. A hallmark of directly transmitted diseases is that they do not require close personal contact. (Points: 1)
True
False

25. Most surveillance systems are passive and disease specific. (Points: 1)
True
False

26. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by the use of antibiotics? (Points: 1)
genital herpes 
AIDS 
pubic lice 
gonorrhea 
hepatitis B

27. Antigenic shift occurs frequently, compared to antigenic drift. (Points: 1)
True
False

28. Avian influenza has been reported in domestic felines (cats). (Points: 1)
True
False

29. Two classes of antivirals which are available for influenza are adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors. Currently, resistance appears to be an increasing problem for the adamantanes, but not the neuraminidase inhibitors. (Points: 1)
True
False

30. The mortality curve for the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was U shaped, indicating the bulk of deaths were among the very young and the very old. (Points: 1)
True
False

31. Which of the following is not true of influenza viruses? (Points: 1)
All strains of influenza virus are highly pathogenic. 
The influenza virus genome contains RNA rather than DNA. 
Nutritional factors affect the ability of the influenza virus to cause infection. 
The relationship between virus and host depends partially on haemaglutinin present on the viral surface.

32. Cellular swelling is a sign of early injury. (Points: 1)
True
False

33. Which statement best describes a dose-response curve for CANCER? (Points: 1)
A line that does not pass through the origin. 
A curve with a point indicating the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL). 
A line where there is no threshold. 
None of the above

34. The amount of a xenobiotic compond encountered in the environment is: (Points: 1)
Total dose 
Administered dose 
Exposure dose 
Absorbed dose

35. A process of tissue destruction characterized by rapid structural and biochemical changes: (Points: 1)
Necrosis 
Apoptosis 
Promotion 
Epigenesis

36. Which of the following is considered to be important in protecting individuals from chemicals? (Points: 1)
Type of chemicals they are exposed to 
The potential levels of exposure 
The toxicity of the chemicals 
All of the above

37. When hyperplasia signals a loss of control of cell division, it always results in cancer. (Points: 1)
True
False

38. Tumor suppressor genes function to increase the activity of cells during times of stress or when conditions do not favor cell division. (Points: 1)
True
False

39. A mutated form of the p53 gene has been identified in tumors of all of the following types of cancer except: (Points: 1)
colon. 
bladder. 
breast. 
stomach. 
skin.

40. A diet high in red meat and saturated fat increases the risk for ________ cancers. (Points: 1)
colon, rectum, and prostate gland 
breast and liver 
brain and lung 
lung, stomach, and liver 
colon, breast, and liver

41. A mass of rapidly dividing cells that have potentially lost the ability to regulate cell division is (Points: 1)
a neoplasm 
angiogenesis 
dysplasia 
hyperplasia 
keratosis

42. The left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle: (Points: 1)
must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the aorta. 
pumps blood more rapidly than the other chambers. 
pumps blood into the atria. 
must decrease the amount of pressure on the blood so it can flow more smoothly. 
receives blood directly from major arteries.

43. Which of the following is not true regarding atherosclerosis? (Points: 1)
Atherosclerosis is a serious contributor to cardiovascular disease in Western nations. 
High levels of LDLs can result in atherosclerosis. 
Atherosclerosis affects the myocardium of the heart, interfering with the electrical signals required for heart contraction. 
Atherosclerosis is also known as "hardening of the arteries." 
Factors contributing to the development of atherosclerosis include smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

44. Which of the following is not a symptom of botulism? (Points: 1)
vomiting 
paralysis of muscles used for breathing 
difficulty swallowing 
double vision 
rash

45. Which of the following is a correct statement? (Points: 1)
Blood pressure is higher in veins than arteries since blood must be returned to the heart. 
Veins are more distensible than arteries. 
Veins have a smaller lumen than arteries. 
The walls of veins are made up of two distinct layers of tissues. 
Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body.

46. When the force of blood on the walls of blood vessels drops below normal, the condition is referred to as (Points: 1)
blood pressure 
hypotension 
hypertension 
aneurysm 
none of the above

47. A student noticed that every time he smelled a certain perfume in the hallway, it reminded him of his mother. This is due largely to the activity of the limbic system. (Points: 1)
True
False

48. Repolarization of a neuron to the resting state requires the activation of sodium-potassium pumps. (Points: 1)
True
False

49. Which of the following is typical of spinal cord injuries? (Points: 1)
Most injuries involve the crushing of axons in the spinal cord. 
Swelling, caused by bleeding at the site of injury, results in damage to axons. 
Macrophages sometimes destroy healthy tissue near the site of injury as they attempt to clear the area of debris. 
Several weeks after the injury, fluid-filled cysts form, blocking nerve signals. 
all of the above

50. Electrical impulses are transmitted between components of the central nervous system via (Points: 1)
glial cells 
motor neurons 
sensory neurons 
interneurons 
macrophages

Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: Homework
Customer: replied 3 years ago.

This is what I have thus far. Answers are in blue.

1. Which of the following is not true regarding knowledge gained through scientific investigation?
This knowledge can be used to prove or disprove religious beliefs.
Scientific knowledge can be used to improve human life through technology.
This knowledge has resulted in more efficient sources of energy and better health care.
This information can be used to detect problems at an early stage and correct mistakes.
Society chooses how scientific information should be used.

2. How does scientific information in peer-reviewed journals differ from that in newspapers? (Points: 1)
Information is more technical; readers usually require a background in the field in order to understand the article.
The article is written by a reporter, not the researcher.
Articles often include political, ethical, and economic ramifications of the scientific findings.
Information is less in-depth and easily understood by the average reader.
Information is not approved by other scientists before its publication.

3. Which of the following sources of scientific information is the most technical? (Points: 1)
general interest news magazines
newspapers
nonfictional books
peer-reviewed journals
science magazines

4. The process by which living organisms maintain a fairly constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment is known as: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
biology.
homeostasis.
evolution.
chemistry.

5. The process by which embryonic cells go through functional and structural changes to become specialized is: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
homeostasis.
differentiation.
in vitro fertilization.
development.

6. Which of the following is not true regarding receptor proteins? (Points: 1)
They are used to receive and transmit information across the plasma membrane.
All cells have the same receptor proteins.
When a receptor protein binds to a molecule, a series of biochemical reactions occur that eventually cause changes to occur in the cell.
The molecule that binds to a receptor protein does not enter the cell.
Receptor proteins bind to a specific molecule or group of molecules.

7. Which of the following is not a function of the skin? (Points: 1)
production of vitamin D
storage of calcium
protection from dehydration
defense from microorganisms
regulation of body temperature

8. Which of the following membranes lines the airways and digestive tract? (Points: 1)
serous
cutaneous
membranous
synovial
mucous

9. Bulk movement of water across plasma membranes and the exchange of oxygen from blood into cells are similar in that the method of transport is by (Points: 1)
facilitated transport.
endocytosis.
diffusion.
active transport.
sodium-potassium pumps

10. If diabetes is left untreated, which of the following could develop as a result? (Points: 1)
neural disorders
kidney failure
blindness
cardiovascular disorders
all of the above

11. The process by which an embryo undergoes rapid changes in form and shape is: (Points: 1)
cleavage.
fertilization.
morphogenesis.
implantation.
differentiation.

12. Research on the aging process shows that wounds of the elderly heal more slowly and that they are more susceptible to disease. These are problems associated with an aging ________ system. (Points: 1)
respiratory
immune
integumentary
digestive
endocrine

13. Which of the following is not true of thyroxine? (Points: 1)
It is secreted by the parathyroid gland.
It regulates the production of ATP.
Like triiodothyronine, thyroxine contains iodine.
It binds to receptors in target cell nuclei and activates genes.
An increase in thyroxine results in an increase in the basal metabolic rate.

14. Which of the following is true regarding estrogen and progesterone? (Points: 1)
They are secreted by the ovaries.
They are released during a female's reproductive years.
They regulate the menstrual cycle.
They stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
all of the above

15. Which of the following genotypes results in a female phenotype? (Points: 1)
XY
XYY
X
XXY
both X and XXY

16. Variations of homologous genes that result in differences in structure and function are: (Points: 1)
alleles.
loci.
autosomes.
dominant.
linked.

17. Which of the following is true regarding Klinefelter syndrome? (Points: 1)
sterility and shows mild mental impairment
female phenotype
XYY genotype

due to nondisjunction of chromosomes after fertilization
trisomy 18 genotype

18. Red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. Assume that mom is a carrier and dad is color blind. What is the chance that their son will inherit red-green color blindness? (Points: 1)
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

19. Which of the following is not true regarding the circulatory system? (Points: 1)
This system ensures that waste products are removed from all tissues of the body.
This system is made up of the blood vessels, heart, and blood.
The circulatory system has an important role in the exchange of gases in the lungs.
During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system.
This system carries excess water and salts to the urinary system.

20. Which of the following is not true regarding the complement system? (Points: 1)
This system involves a group of at least 20 proteins found in the blood plasma.
During an infection, one protein in this system activates the next in a cascade of reactions.
Some components of this system stimulate eosinophils to release histamine.
Activated components of this system adhere to bacterial cell walls and then put holes in these cell walls.
Some components of this system stick to the walls of bacterial cells, marking them for phagocytosis.

21. When a blood vessel gets damaged, contractions of smooth muscle referred to as ____help constrict the vessels to reduce blood flow. (Points: 1)
vascular spasms
hemostasis
homeostasis
formed elements
phagocytosis

22. Blood doping, practiced by many athletes involved in the Tour de France and other sports involves the illegal use of drugs to (Points: 1)
increase circulation.
increase the amount of oxygen carried in the blood.
decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
elevate the rate of hemostasis.
increase red bone marrow.

23. Early campaigns of the 19th century that focused on sanitation, hygiene, housing, and nutrition had little effect in controlling communicable disease due to flawed rationale based on theories of miasma or contagion. (Points: 1)
True
False

24. A hallmark of directly transmitted diseases is that they do not require close personal contact. (Points: 1)
True
False

25. Most surveillance systems are passive and disease specific. (Points: 1)
True
False

26. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by the use of antibiotics? (Points: 1)
genital herpes
AIDS
pubic lice
gonorrhea
hepatitis B

27. Antigenic shift occurs frequently, compared to antigenic drift. (Points: 1)
True
False


28. Avian influenza has been reported in domestic felines (cats). (Points: 1)
True
False

29. Two classes of antivirals which are available for influenza are adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors. Currently, resistance appears to be an increasing problem for the adamantanes, but not the neuraminidase inhibitors. (Points: 1)
True
False

30. The mortality curve for the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was U shaped, indicating the bulk of deaths were among the very young and the very old. (Points: 1)
True
False

31. Which of the following is not true of influenza viruses? (Points: 1)
All strains of influenza virus are highly pathogenic.
The influenza virus genome contains RNA rather than DNA.
Nutritional factors affect the ability of the influenza virus to cause infection.
The relationship between virus and host depends partially on haemaglutinin present on the viral surface.

32. Cellular swelling is a sign of early injury. (Points: 1)
True
False

33. Which statement best describes a dose-response curve for CANCER? (Points: 1)
A line that does not pass through the origin.
A curve with a point indicating the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL).
A line where there is no threshold.
None of the above

34. The amount of a xenobiotic compond encountered in the environment is: (Points: 1)
Total dose
Administered dose
Exposure dose
Absorbed dose

35. A process of tissue destruction characterized by rapid structural and biochemical changes: (Points: 1)
Necrosis
Apoptosis
Promotion
Epigenesis

36. Which of the following is considered to be important in protecting individuals from chemicals? (Points: 1)
Type of chemicals they are exposed to
The potential levels of exposure
The toxicity of the chemicals
All of the above

37. When hyperplasia signals a loss of control of cell division, it always results in cancer. (Points: 1)
True
False

38. Tumor suppressor genes function to increase the activity of cells during times of stress or when conditions do not favor cell division. (Points: 1)
True
False

39. A mutated form of the p53 gene has been identified in tumors of all of the following types of cancer except: (Points: 1)
colon.
bladder.
breast.
stomach.
skin.

40. A diet high in red meat and saturated fat increases the risk for ________ cancers. (Points: 1)
colon, rectum, and prostate gland
breast and liver
brain and lung
lung, stomach, and liver
colon, breast, and liver

41. A mass of rapidly dividing cells that have potentially lost the ability to regulate cell division is (Points: 1)
a neoplasm
angiogenesis
dysplasia
hyperplasia
keratosis

42. The left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle: (Points: 1)
must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the aorta.
pumps blood more rapidly than the other chambers.
pumps blood into the atria.
must decrease the amount of pressure on the blood so it can flow more smoothly.
receives blood directly from major arteries.

43. Which of the following is not true regarding atherosclerosis? (Points: 1)
Atherosclerosis is a serious contributor to cardiovascular disease in Western nations.
High levels of LDLs can result in atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis affects the myocardium of the heart, interfering with the electrical signals required for heart contraction.
Atherosclerosis is also known as "hardening of the arteries."
Factors contributing to the development of atherosclerosis include smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

44. Which of the following is not a symptom of botulism? (Points: 1)
vomiting
paralysis of muscles used for breathing
difficulty swallowing
double vision
rash

45. Which of the following is a correct statement? (Points: 1)
Blood pressure is higher in veins than arteries since blood must be returned to the heart.
Veins are more distensible than arteries.
Veins have a smaller lumen than arteries.
The walls of veins are made up of two distinct layers of tissues.
Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body.

46. When the force of blood on the walls of blood vessels drops below normal, the condition is referred to as (Points: 1)
blood pressure
hypotension
hypertension
aneurysm
none of the above

47. A student noticed that every time he smelled a certain perfume in the hallway, it reminded him of his mother. This is due largely to the activity of the limbic system. (Points: 1)
True
False

48. Repolarization of a neuron to the resting state requires the activation of sodium-potassium pumps. (Points: 1)
True
False

49. Which of the following is typical of spinal cord injuries? (Points: 1)
Most injuries involve the crushing of axons in the spinal cord.
Swelling, caused by bleeding at the site of injury, results in damage to axons.
Macrophages sometimes destroy healthy tissue near the site of injury as they attempt to clear the area of debris.
Several weeks after the injury, fluid-filled cysts form, blocking nerve signals.
all of the above

50. Electrical impulses are transmitted between components of the central nervous system via (Points: 1)
glial cells
motor neurons
sensory neurons
interneurons
macrophages

Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
9. Bulk movement of water across plasma membranes and the exchange of oxygen from blood into cells are similar in that the method of transport is by (Points: 1)
facilitated transport.
endocytosis. (Incorrect)
diffusion (Correct)
active transport.
sodium-potassium pumps
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/mike/spring2003/lect07.htm

The other ones that you answered are correct
17. Which of the following is true regarding Klinefelter syndrome? (Points: 1)
sterility and shows mild mental impairment
female phenotype
XYY genotype (Incorrect)

due to nondisjunction of chromosomes after fertilization (CORRECT)
trisomy 18 genotype
(Kleinfelter is XXY - an extra X rather than an extra Y)
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/klinefelter-syndrome
Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
4. The process by which living organisms maintain a fairly constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment is known as: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
biology.
homeostasis.
evolution.
chemistry.

Hint:
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Homeostasis

5. The process by which embryonic cells go through functional and structural changes to become specialized is: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
homeostasis.
differentiation.
in vitro fertilization.
development.

Hint:
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/

6. Which of the following is not true regarding receptor proteins? (Points: 1)
They are used to receive and transmit information across the plasma membrane.
All cells have the same receptor proteins.
When a receptor protein binds to a molecule, a series of biochemical reactions occur that eventually cause changes to occur in the cell.
The molecule that binds to a receptor protein does not enter the cell.
Receptor proteins bind to a specific molecule or group of molecules.

Hint:
http://www.mindcreators.com/DevelopmentalSim/ReceptorsLigands.htm

8. Which of the following membranes lines the airways and digestive tract? (Points: 1)
serous
cutaneous
membranous
synovial
mucous
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-mucous-membrane.htm
Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
10. If diabetes is left untreated, which of the following could develop as a result? (Points: 1)
neural disorders
kidney failure
blindness
cardiovascular disorders
all of the above

Hint:
http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/

11. The process by which an embryo undergoes rapid changes in form and shape is: (Points: 1)
cleavage.
fertilization.
morphogenesis.
implantation.
differentiation.

Hint:
http://embryo.asu.edu/view/embryo:125126
Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
44. Which of the following is not a symptom of botulism? (Points: 1)
vomiting
paralysis of muscles used for breathing
difficulty swallowing
double vision
rash

Hint: Consider the mechanism of action - a neurtoxin, which symptoms would you expect?
http://www.botulismsymptoms.org/

45. Which of the following is a correct statement? (Points: 1)
Blood pressure is higher in veins than arteries since blood must be returned to the heart.
Veins are more distensible than arteries.
Veins have a smaller lumen than arteries.
The walls of veins are made up of two distinct layers of tissues.
Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body.

Hint:
http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/foxhumphys/student/olc/chap13summary.html

46. When the force of blood on the walls of blood vessels drops below normal, the condition is referred to as (Points: 1)
blood pressure
hypotension
hypertension
aneurysm
none of the above

Hint: The prefix "hypo-" means under, beneath or lacking
Customer: replied 3 years ago.
Thank you! Will aslo you be able to check the one that I've just completed?
Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
Sure...
Customer: replied 3 years ago.

1. Which of the following is not true regarding knowledge gained through scientific investigation?
This knowledge can be used to prove or disprove religious beliefs.
Scientific knowledge can be used to improve human life through technology.
This knowledge has resulted in more efficient sources of energy and better health care.
This information can be used to detect problems at an early stage and correct mistakes.
Society chooses how scientific information should be used.

2. How does scientific information in peer-reviewed journals differ from that in newspapers? (Points: 1)
Information is more technical; readers usually require a background in the field in order to understand the article.
The article is written by a reporter, not the researcher.
Articles often include political, ethical, and economic ramifications of the scientific findings.
Information is less in-depth and easily understood by the average reader.
Information is not approved by other scientists before its publication.

3. Which of the following sources of scientific information is the most technical? (Points: 1)
general interest news magazines
newspapers
nonfictional books
peer-reviewed journals
science magazines

4. The process by which living organisms maintain a fairly constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment is known as: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
biology.
homeostasis.
evolution.
chemistry.

5. The process by which embryonic cells go through functional and structural changes to become specialized is: (Points: 1)
metabolism.
homeostasis.
differentiation.
in vitro fertilization.
development.

6. Which of the following is not true regarding receptor proteins? (Points: 1)
They are used to receive and transmit information across the plasma membrane.
All cells have the same receptor proteins.
When a receptor protein binds to a molecule, a series of biochemical reactions occur that eventually cause changes to occur in the cell.
The molecule that binds to a receptor protein does not enter the cell.
Receptor proteins bind to a specific molecule or group of molecules.

7. Which of the following is not a function of the skin? (Points: 1)
production of vitamin D
storage of calcium
protection from dehydration
defense from microorganisms
regulation of body temperature

8. Which of the following membranes lines the airways and digestive tract? (Points: 1)
serous
cutaneous
membranous
synovial
mucous

9. Bulk movement of water across plasma membranes and the exchange of oxygen from blood into cells are similar in that the method of transport is by (Points: 1)
facilitated transport.
endocytosis.
diffusion.
active transport.
sodium-potassium pumps

10. If diabetes is left untreated, which of the following could develop as a result? (Points: 1)
neural disorders
kidney failure
blindness
cardiovascular disorders
all of the above

11. The process by which an embryo undergoes rapid changes in form and shape is: (Points: 1)
cleavage.
fertilization.
morphogenesis.
implantation.
differentiation.

12. Research on the aging process shows that wounds of the elderly heal more slowly and that they are more susceptible to disease. These are problems associated with an aging ________ system. (Points: 1)
respiratory
immune
integumentary
digestive
endocrine

13. Which of the following is not true of thyroxine? (Points: 1)
It is secreted by the parathyroid gland.
It regulates the production of ATP.
Like triiodothyronine, thyroxine contains iodine.
It binds to receptors in target cell nuclei and activates genes.
An increase in thyroxine results in an increase in the basal metabolic rate.

14. Which of the following is true regarding estrogen and progesterone? (Points: 1)
They are secreted by the ovaries.
They are released during a female's reproductive years.
They regulate the menstrual cycle.
They stimulate the development of female secondary sex characteristics.
all of the above

15. Which of the following genotypes results in a female phenotype? (Points: 1)
XY
XYY
X
XXY
both X and XXY


16. Variations of homologous genes that result in differences in structure and function are: (Points: 1)
alleles.
loci.
autosomes.
dominant.
linked.

17. Which of the following is true regarding Klinefelter syndrome? (Points: 1)
sterility and shows mild mental impairment
female phenotype
XYY genotype

due to nondisjunction of chromosomes after fertilization
trisomy 18 genotype

18. Red-green color blindness is an X-linked recessive disorder. Assume that mom is a carrier and dad is color blind. What is the chance that their son will inherit red-green color blindness? (Points: 1)
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

19. Which of the following is not true regarding the circulatory system? (Points: 1)
This system ensures that waste products are removed from all tissues of the body.
This system is made up of the blood vessels, heart, and blood.
The circulatory system has an important role in the exchange of gases in the lungs.
During fetal development, the circulatory system develops from the lymphatic system.
This system carries excess water and salts to the urinary system.

20. Which of the following is not true regarding the complement system? (Points: 1)
This system involves a group of at least 20 proteins found in the blood plasma.
During an infection, one protein in this system activates the next in a cascade of reactions.
Some components of this system stimulate eosinophils to release histamine.
Activated components of this system adhere to bacterial cell walls and then put holes in these cell walls.
Some components of this system stick to the walls of bacterial cells, marking them for phagocytosis.

21. When a blood vessel gets damaged, contractions of smooth muscle referred to as ____help constrict the vessels to reduce blood flow. (Points: 1)
vascular spasms
hemostasis
homeostasis
formed elements
phagocytosis

22. Blood doping, practiced by many athletes involved in the Tour de France and other sports involves the illegal use of drugs to (Points: 1)
increase circulation.
increase the amount of oxygen carried in the blood.
decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood.
elevate the rate of hemostasis.
increase red bone marrow.

23. Early campaigns of the 19th century that focused on sanitation, hygiene, housing, and nutrition had little effect in controlling communicable disease due to flawed rationale based on theories of miasma or contagion. (Points: 1)
True
False

24. A hallmark of directly transmitted diseases is that they do not require close personal contact. (Points: 1)
True
False

25. Most surveillance systems are passive and disease specific. (Points: 1)
True
False

26. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by the use of antibiotics? (Points: 1)
genital herpes
AIDS
pubic lice
gonorrhea
hepatitis B

27. Antigenic shift occurs frequently, compared to antigenic drift. (Points: 1)
True
False


28. Avian influenza has been reported in domestic felines (cats). (Points: 1)
True
False

29. Two classes of antivirals which are available for influenza are adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors. Currently, resistance appears to be an increasing problem for the adamantanes, but not the neuraminidase inhibitors. (Points: 1)
True
False

30. The mortality curve for the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was U shaped, indicating the bulk of deaths were among the very young and the very old. (Points: 1)
True
False

31. Which of the following is not true of influenza viruses? (Points: 1)
All strains of influenza virus are highly pathogenic.
The influenza virus genome contains RNA rather than DNA.
Nutritional factors affect the ability of the influenza virus to cause infection.
The relationship between virus and host depends partially on haemaglutinin present on the viral surface.

32. Cellular swelling is a sign of early injury. (Points: 1)
True
False

33. Which statement best describes a dose-response curve for CANCER? (Points: 1)
A line that does not pass through the origin.
A curve with a point indicating the Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL).
A line where there is no threshold.
None of the above

34. The amount of a xenobiotic compond encountered in the environment is: (Points: 1)
Total dose
Administered dose
Exposure dose
Absorbed dose

35. A process of tissue destruction characterized by rapid structural and biochemical changes: (Points: 1)
Necrosis
Apoptosis
Promotion
Epigenesis

36. Which of the following is considered to be important in protecting individuals from chemicals? (Points: 1)
Type of chemicals they are exposed to
The potential levels of exposure
The toxicity of the chemicals
All of the above

37. When hyperplasia signals a loss of control of cell division, it always results in cancer. (Points: 1)
True
False

38. Tumor suppressor genes function to increase the activity of cells during times of stress or when conditions do not favor cell division. (Points: 1)
True
False

39. A mutated form of the p53 gene has been identified in tumors of all of the following types of cancer except: (Points: 1)
colon.
bladder.
breast.
stomach.
skin.

40. A diet high in red meat and saturated fat increases the risk for ________ cancers. (Points: 1)
colon, rectum, and prostate gland
breast and liver
brain and lung
lung, stomach, and liver
colon, breast, and liver

41. A mass of rapidly dividing cells that have potentially lost the ability to regulate cell division is (Points: 1)
a neoplasm
angiogenesis
dysplasia
hyperplasia
keratosis

42. The left ventricle has a more muscular wall than the other three chambers of the heart because the left ventricle: (Points: 1)
must generate enough blood pressure to pump blood into the aorta.
pumps blood more rapidly than the other chambers.
pumps blood into the atria.
must decrease the amount of pressure on the blood so it can flow more smoothly.
receives blood directly from major arteries.

43. Which of the following is not true regarding atherosclerosis? (Points: 1)
Atherosclerosis is a serious contributor to cardiovascular disease in Western nations.
High levels of LDLs can result in atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis affects the myocardium of the heart, interfering with the electrical signals required for heart contraction.
Atherosclerosis is also known as "hardening of the arteries."
Factors contributing to the development of atherosclerosis include smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

44. Which of the following is not a symptom of botulism? (Points: 1)
vomiting
paralysis of muscles used for breathing
difficulty swallowing
double vision
rash

45. Which of the following is a correct statement? (Points: 1)
Blood pressure is higher in veins than arteries since blood must be returned to the heart.
Veins are more distensible than arteries.
Veins have a smaller lumen than arteries.
The walls of veins are made up of two distinct layers of tissues.
Veins carry blood to the capillaries of the body.

46. When the force of blood on the walls of blood vessels drops below normal, the condition is referred to as (Points: 1)
blood pressure
hypotension
hypertension
aneurysm
none of the above

47. A student noticed that every time he smelled a certain perfume in the hallway, it reminded him of his mother. This is due largely to the activity of the limbic system. (Points: 1)
True
False

48. Repolarization of a neuron to the resting state requires the activation of sodium-potassium pumps. (Points: 1)
True
False

49. Which of the following is typical of spinal cord injuries? (Points: 1)
Most injuries involve the crushing of axons in the spinal cord.
Swelling, caused by bleeding at the site of injury, results in damage to axons.
Macrophages sometimes destroy healthy tissue near the site of injury as they attempt to clear the area of debris.
Several weeks after the injury, fluid-filled cysts form, blocking nerve signals.
all of the above

50. Electrical impulses are transmitted between components of the central nervous system via (Points: 1)
glial cells
motor neurons
sensory neurons
interneurons
macrophages

Expert:  Family Physician replied 3 years ago.
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