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Parts of northern Argentina are semi-arid and remote. Widely

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Parts of northern Argentina are semi-arid and remote. Widely dispersed villages and farms are built on sedimentary deposits, which act as aquifers for groundwater. In some areas, these aquifers overlay sulfide-rich volcanic (igneous) bedrock from which iron and copper ores are mined. The region is still geologically active, with geothermal processes heating water deep underground. This water can flow through the bedrock, upwell and mix with the shallow groundwater from which some villagers have obtained their drinking water and water for irrigation for hundreds of years. The cost of implementing a piped water network or treatment facilities is too great for much of this region.Drinking water sourced from groundwater in several of the villages and farms in this region have been found to be contaminated with arsenic above WHO safe levels. However, larger, more affluent villages are able to drill deep into the bedrock and obtain water from below the aquifer. This water is within WHO safe levels for arsenic. The region also relies heavily on agriculture: pastoral farming for meat and arable farming to supply vegetables, rice and maize are crucial for survival of these populations.

Question: explain the chemical and physical processes that may occur when the geothermal water mixes with groundwater in this region. What evidence suggests that arsenic liberation occurs in the shallow groundwater
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