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42. The first step in a scientific investigation is to _______. A)

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42. The first step in a scientific investigation is to _______.
A) choose the population
B) operationally define the variables
C) formulate a testable hypothesis
D) It differs for different types of scientific studies.
E) choose a research method


44. The experiment is a research method in which the investigator ________.
A) conducts an in-depth investigation of an individual subject
B) manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in a second variable as a result
C) observes behavior as it occurs in its natural environment
D) systematically observes two variables to see whether there is an association between them


45. Which of the following is NOT true regarding commonsense analyses of behavior? (The answer to this question is not directly addressed in either the textbook or any of the outline notes. Instead, you need to reason through the differences between commonsense and the scientific method.)
A) They often tolerate contradictory generalizations.
B) They usually involve little effort to verify ideas or detect errors.
C) They tend to be vague and ambiguous.
D) They are typically based on precise definitions and hypotheses that have been tested empirically.


46. The use of reinforcement and punishment to modify a child's unruly behavior reflects the ______ goals of science. (To answer this question, you do not need to know the specifics about reinforcement and punishment, which we will go over in the next modules on Learning. You do, however, need to know about the goals of science.)
A) measurement and description
B) understanding and prediction
C) deterministic and teleological
D) application and control


47. Perhaps the greatest advantage associated with descriptive research methods over other methods is _______.
A) the ability to isolate cause-and-effect linkages in behavior
B) a sensitivity to all ethical concerns
C) the ability to explore questions that cannot be manipulated using experimental procedures
D) the ability to focus on specific, isolated behaviors

48. Which of the following is true of a well-designed and well-conducted experiment?
A) Experimental and control groups must be provided with many experiences that differ.
B) Only the random/extraneous variables should differ for experimental and control participants.
C) Only the independent variable (and thus potentially the dependent variable) should differ for experimental and control participants.
D) Experimental and control groups must be exposed to an equal number of confounds, even if the specific confounds differ between the groups.
Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: Homework
Expert:  Chris M. replied 3 years ago.
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Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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