Here are the answer to exam #50189100 for comparison with your own. Let me know if you have questions about any discrepancies.
1. C. Encouraging citizens to help in preventing and solving crimes
2. A. Police officers are soldiers in a war against crime.
3. B. Social contract
4. C. An aspirational code that specifies ideal behavior
5. A. Importance of the law
6. D. Police subculture
7. A. Feeling victimized
8. C. Use of illegal investigation tactics
9. A. Discretion
10. A. Utilitarianism
11. B. Gratuities
12. C. Ethics of virtue
13. A. Strict enforcement of the code of ethics
14. D. Utilitarian ethics
15. C. Loyalty is extended in a rational way.
16. D. unethical, because you can't betray a trust.
17. B. ethical because it's the best means to a positive end, such as busting drug sales, prostitution, and organized-crime activities.
18. C. ethical because they make you feel good, especially if you feel that the gratuity is deserved.
19. B. There's a vast difference between the formal code of ethics and actual police behavior.
20. D. Police undercover stings, in which cops set up fencing operations to buy stolen goods, can be supported by all ethical systems as long as they're good for the community.
Hope this helps!
I'll have a look at #501892 and let you now about that one.
1. Which of the following statements applies to the ethical code
A. The Model Rules aren't concerned with behavior.
B. The Model Rules have few similarities to the law enforcement
code of ethics.
C. The Model Rules are concerned with a lawyer's conduct
toward the client and the court.
D. The Model Rules are an aspirational code of ethics.
2. An important assumption in bureaucratic justice is
A. the presumption of innocence.
B. the presumption of guilt.
C. fair but slow processing.
D. that each case is separately judged.
3. A judge's instructions to the jury are crucial in a criminal case because these instructions
A. let the jury know which way the judge is leaning.
B. set up the questions of fact and thus help the jury decide guilt or innocence.
C. set up the legal questions and definitions of the case.
D. explain the unique features of the case.
4. You're an African American defense attorney who has just discovered that your client is
a member of the Ku Klux Klan. When can you pull out of the case?
B. Only after the judge permits you to, based on your mental state
C. Before the case goes to trial
D. Only after you notify your client
5. Your client tells you that she's going to lie during her testimony. What should you do?
B. Tell the judge immediately.
C. Ask her not to lie; if she refuses, tell the judge.
D. Ask her not to lie; if she refuses, withdraw from the case.
6. Which of the following statements applies to lawyer-client confidentiality?
A. A lawyer can't ethically reveal client confidences when the client consents.
B. A lawyer can ethically reveal client confidences when disclosure is required by law
or court order.
C. A lawyer can't ethically reveal client confidences for self-defense against an accusation
of wrongful conduct.
D. A lawyer can ethically reveal client confidences when learning, after the fact, that
the client lied on previous testimony to the court.
7. Under federal sentencing guidelines, conviction of the possession of crack cocaine
receives a sentence that's _______ times longer than that for possession of powder
A. 10 C. 75
B. 25 D. 100
8. The rule of confidentiality _______ to physical evidence.
A. always applies C. sometimes applies
B. never applies D. applies in only one instance
9. If the client drops stolen contraband into the lawyer's lap, the lawyer must
A. return it to the client and ask him or her never to do that again.
B. return it to the client but tell the judge only.
C. offer it to the police.
D. do nothing.
10. If the client tells the attorney where the murder weapon is and the attorney goes to
check, then the attorney must
A. return the weapon to the client and ask him or her not to display the object again.
B. tell the judge only but not the police.
C. offer the weapon to the police.
11. If an attorney has doubts about the truthfulness of a client's testimony, he or she should
A. not allow the client to go on the stand.
B. tell the judge.
C. offer the information to the police.
D. proceed with the doubtful testimony.
12. Which of the following statements is true about attorney conflict of interest?
A. Lawyers have no conflict-of-interest rules.
B. As long as attorneys can handle themselves professionally, they can represent
clients who may have interests that conflict with their own interests.
C. Defense attorneys can't represent co-defendants in criminal actions.
D. Lawyers can accept clients with conflicting interests as long as they follow the
13. Which of the following statements applies to a zealous defense?
A. The lawyer can destroy the credibility of an honest witness.
B. The lawyer shouldn't engage in motions or actions to intentionally and maliciously
C. The lawyer can intentionally advance unwarranted claims or defenses.
D. The lawyer can knowingly make a false statement of law or fact.
14. Which of the following statements applies to the action of prosecutors?
A. A prosecutor must seek justice, not merely a conviction.
B. A prosecutor has much less discretion than other criminal justice professionals.
C. A prosecutor is allowed to pursue charges when there's no probable cause.
D. A prosecutor has no duty to the public as a representative of the state.
15. Which of the following is the best example of prosecutorial discretion?
A. A prosecutor can knowingly make false statements in the course of plea discussions.
B. A prosecutor can choose whether to charge or not to charge a person.
C. A prosecutor can choose to speak to the media about the character or credibility of
the suspect or witness.
D. A prosecutor can choose to disclose evidence to the defense.
16. Which of the following statements applies to the judicial process?
A. A prosecutor can communicate with a defendant outside of the presence of the
B. If the defense files a motion requesting pertinent evidence, a prosecutor must hand
C. Specific rules exist concerning when a prosecutor and a judge can discuss an ongoing
case without the presence of a defense attorney.
D. A prosecutor should never take steps to avoid allowing false testimony on the stand.
17. You're a defense attorney with a murder-suspect client who has informed you of
the location of the victims' bodies. Under which ethical system are you justified in
A. Utilitarianism C. Ethical formalism
B. Religion D. Ethics of care
18. Which of the ethical systems would most justify defending a client zealously?
A. Ethical formalism C. Egoism
B. Religion D. Ethics of virtue
19. Which of the following statements applies to the use of experts?
A. Paying an expert for his or her time is unethical.
B. Shopping for experts until one is found who benefits the case is ethical.
C. Any pertinent information from prosecution experts is supposed to be shared with
D. Test results by prosecution experts don't have to be shared with the defense.
20. Which of the following statements applies to the behavior of judges?
A. A judge has no duty to conclude judicial processing with reasonable punctuality.
B. The judiciary doesn't have its own code of ethics.
C. The primary theme of judicial ethics is impartiality.
D. Judges have the least discretion in interpreting the law and making sentencing
Great job thank you very much.
1. The rationale for punishment and correction comes from
A. the social contract theory.
B. Rawls's theory.
2. The two major justifications for treatment and punishment
A. incapacitation and deterrence.
B. just deserts and retribution.
C. retribution and prevention.
D. restorative justice and prevention.
3. Which of the following statements applies to the retributive rationale for punishment?
A. Justice is based on personal vengeance.
B. Punishment is the only way the individual can achieve salvation.
C. Punishment doesn't balance the advantage gained by a wrongdoer.
D. This rationale is based solely on who the criminal is rather than on the
4. The "just war" is consistent with a system of ethics that follows
A. utilitarianism. C. egoism.
B. ethical formalism. D. cultural relativity.
5. The federal legislation that allows agencies to spy on Americans without reasonable
suspicion is the _______ Act.
A. Total Information Awareness C. Patriot
B. Operation TIPS D. Terrorist
6. Under which rationale is punishing a passion murderer justified?
A. Retribution C. Restorative justice
B. Deterrence D. Incapacitation
7. Habitual-felon laws are
A. not widely debated.
B. involved with only the felon's most recent crime.
C. almost universally agreed upon.
D. not unconstitutional.
8. Which ethical system supports the prevention justification for punishment?
A. Ethical formalism C. Utilitarianism
B. Relativism D. Egoism
9. Which ethical system supports the retributive view of punishment?
10. The ethics of care supports which of the following?
A. Treatment C. Deterrence
B. Retributive punishment D. Just deserts
11. Which of the following statements applies to Rawls's defense of punishment?
A. It's an alternative to utilitarianism and retributivism.
B. It's acceptable to treat people as a means to an end as long as you're trying to
reach a desirable goal.
C. Loss of rights should occur only when it's consistent with the best interests of the
D. Punishment should continue even when the offender instead of the victim or society
becomes the one with the least advantage.
12. Which of the following ethical systems can both support and condemn capital punishment?
A. Ethics of care C. Ethical formalism
B. Retributivism D. Utilitarianism
13. Which of the following statements applies to correctional officers?
A. The correctional officers' code of ethics bears little similarity to the law enforcement
B. The correctional officers' code of ethics emphasizes integrity, protection of individual
rights, and service to the public.
C. The correctional officers' subculture permits lugging drugs and weapons for
D. The correctional officers' subculture is fairly consistent with their formal code
14. A nation's incursion into the sovereignty of another nation under the auspices of a
United Nations treaty is justified under
A. positivist law. C. natural law.
B. just war theory. D. self-defense.
15. Which of the following rationales would support capital punishment?
A. Ethics of care C. Incapacitation
B. Retributivism D. Religion
16. Which of the following systems of belief is concerned with making victims whole, as
they were before the crime?
A. Retributivism C. Restorative justice
B. Deterrence D. Treatment
17. Detainees in Guantanamo have the right to challenge their detention in United States
federal courts under the U.S. Supreme Court case of
18. Which of the following actions applies to the correctional officers' code of ethics?
A. Acceptance of gifts, services, or favors
B. Protection of the public's right to be safeguarded from criminal activity
C. Use of discretion regarding objectivity
D. Support of officer sanctions against inmates on a case-by-case basis
19. The "war on terror" has replaced the
A. crime control emphasis of police.
B. "war on drugs."
C. "race for space."
D. Cold War.
20. Which of the following applies to the subculture of probation and parole officers?
A. A norm of optimism regarding clients exists.
B. A norm against informing on fellow officers exists.
C. A norm of maximal work output exists.
D. A norm of group versus individual decisions exists.
Victor was robbed and beaten by a man wearing a rubber