Hi, i can have an answer for you by noon on Wednesday. Will that be soon enough to receive an answer to these questions?
Also, approximately what length (word count) do you need and do you needed source citations or just the basic information?
All answers must be 250 300 words and all references sited.
Each answer should be between 250- 325 words . all references must be sited
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Two somewhat different colonies were established in North America by the British Empire.In the North the New England Colony was established. The Southern colony was referred to as the Chesapeake Colony. (Taylor 2002 p 158) According to Taylor in his book The Settling of North America the same social and economic pressures on the British empire spawned both colonies. (Taylor 2002 p 158) But the type of settlements were markedly different from the onset because the type of settlers were markedly different in a significant way. In New England the settlers were "middling sorts" according to Taylor. This meant they had enough means to preserve their freedom in making the trek across the Atlantic by ship. (Taylor 2002 p 158). On the other hand, the first settlers of the Chesapeake Colonies were of the poor sort, many were short lived after arriving, and were "indentured" upon their arrival. (Taylor 2002 p 158) another characteristic which distinguished many of the settlers was their type of faith. The Puritans in new England subscribed to a more community based and demanding doctrine; the Calvinistic Doctrine. Their Southern counterparts generally practiced the less severe doctrine of Anglicanism. Although colder and harsher, the New England climate was actually healthier because of it in terms of disease and illness. To work the land or engage in farming in the North demanded a heartier soul and was less profitable. The land to the South was more forgiving to farm and turned out to be much more profitable. The New England settlement modeled itself after their English counterparts and by the start of the 18th Century "commercialism" from various trades had set in. Max Weber, an early Economist/Sociologist pointed out that seeking rewards coincided with a Calvinist's disposition - "rewards offered reassurance that God approved of their efforts". (Taylor 2002 p 159) An egalitarian economy developed because there was a labor shortage in New England and family members were depended on to increase the productivity of the colony. The Chesapeake Colony moved in a different direction - a Plantation economy. Indentured labor was a way of life from its roots and progressed with utilizing slavery to work the larger land holdings as the land was easier to farm, even less rocky, than in the North. But a staple crop, even before "Cotton became King", in the south was Tobacco. Because of cash crops like Tobacco and Corn land holdings attracted investors from Britain. A form of Management grew that fostered indentured servants, slavery, and an Aristocracy. (Taylor 2002 p 159 - 160). Two different models of success emerged, then, from the beginnings of two colonies that were established by the same British Empire.
This statement by Wilentz in his book XXXXX XXXXX (2005) succinctly characterizes why President XXXXX XXXXX carried on a war with the Second Bank of America; "As president he assailed anything he construed as undemocratic heresy or a potential threat to Democracy and the Union, by widening the field of executive appointments through rotation in office, excoriating the South Carolina nullifiers, destroying the Second Bank of the United States- and silencing the radical abolitionist." (Wilentz 2005 p 10). His war with the bank therefore was necessary to protect the Union according to that statement. Unexpectedly, after his election in 1828, XXXXX XXXXX was soliciting advice on how to replace the bank even though its charter wasn't set to expire until 1836. (Wilentz 2005 p 74) His sentiment that the bank threatened Democracy and the Union was his concern when he gave his first annual message in 1829. In his message he questioned two aspects of the bank; whether its charter was constitutional and that the bank's President, Mr. Nicholas Biddle, had failed to provide the country with a sound currency. Some critics point out that his attack on the bank was that because during the election he believed that two branches of the bank had secretly channeled money to Adam's campaign. This was a matter of honor as the bank was viewed as allied with his opponents. The French Historian Tocqueville had echoed this sentiment in his famous book "Democracy in America". (Wilentz 2005 p 75). This may have directed his focus toward the Second Bank of America after being elected to office, but by focusing on it rather than ignoring it, Jackson recognized that the Bank operated as an independent fourth branch of government that concentrated power in the hands of a privileged few. (Wilentz 2005 p76).This in Jackson's minded constituted an affront against the will of the citizenry, which like Jefferson, was associated with the world of British Aristocracy and privilege the United States was really fighting to survive against. Hammond in his book, Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War (1985) pointed out five areas where the Jacksonian Cabinet attacked the bank in a unified manner which included "popular identification of the Bank with the aristocracy of business" (Hammond 1985 p 327) According to Hammond the result from Jackson destroying the Bank merely enhanced Capitalism by ending Federal regulation of bank credit (a threat to state sovereignty) and shifted the money interest away from Chestnut Street where the Bank's headquarters were and toward Wall Street as the new center. (Hammond 1985 p 328)
Hammond, Bray, Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War [Paperback], 1957, renewed 1985, Princeton University Press, ISBN: 0-691-00553-2
Taylor, Allen, American Colonies: The Settling of North America (The Penguin History of the United States, Volume1) (Hist of the USA) [Paperback] 2002, Penguin Group, ISBN 0 14 20.0210 0
Wilentz, Sean, (author) & Schlesinger Jr., Arthur M., (editor), Andrew Jackson [Hardcover], 2005, Time Books: Henry Holtz and Company LLC, ISBN: 13-978-0-8050-6925-9
I'm still working on it - I got behind schedule. How do these first three answers work for you? Check the word count and modify as needed to trim- wanted to make sure that the important facts are addressed!
In 1830, shortly after XXXXX XXXXX took the Presidential Office, the young nation was gripped by "Alabama" fever. (Wallace 1993). Cotton had become King not only in the South, but also in the North where mills turned it into fabric and socks later to be worn by Civil War soldiers. In 1830 there was an estimated 450 million people in the world. about 900 million pounds of cotton were produced. That is two pounds of thread per person. Over fifty percent of the world's cotton was grown and supplied in the South. A 500 acre track of cotton could bring in $6,000 dollars, which was quite substantial in 1830. In the mid 1830s about 400 million pounds of cotton produced in the South mostly was shipped as a cash crop to Britain.Competition between mills in the North and with Great Britain to supply cotton fabrics led to Protective Tariff. This Tariff led to a bitter inter-regional conflict over federal Tariff Policy. President Jackson was facing pressure over separatist sentiment in the South, especially Georgia, which threatened the strength of the Union (which he was committed to preserving). Based on logic, established under Washington's first administration, Native Americans were considered foreign nationals and the Federal government therefore preserved the right to eminent domain over their lands and could purchase the lands as needed. Georgia was upset that Washington (the federal government) since 1802 had not removed the Indians from lands to the West that the southern states conceded to be under the auspice of the federal government, and even land tracks in Georgia. (Wallace 1993, p 1-3) So this back drop faces the political administration and the Congress when the Indian Removal Act is passed by Congress then signed into law by President Jackson in 1830.
Most evaluations of the Indian Removal Act refer to it as a "monstrous act" as they cite the horrors associated with it; manipulated treaties, swindles, extermination, the trail of tears, the Treaty of Big Tree (removal of 2,500 Senecas from New York for timber rights!) and so forth, and avoid the President's point of view. (Flemming 2005, p 45) According to Flemming in his series of essays titled The Legacy of XXXXX XXXXX: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal and Slavery (2005) he points out that Jackson's removal policy was influenced by his vision of protecting the young nation. He refers to Jackson's role in the War of 1812 when later he defeated the British at New Orleans in 1815. Jackson wrote to President James Monroe; "The Lower country is of too great importance to the union", following his victory. (Flemming 2005 p 47). His policy was also influenced by eliminating threats from the so-called "Five Civilized Tribes" who could be utilized by a foreign power. His failure to honor the terms of the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812- the restoration of twenty three million acres of land to the Native Americans was not challenged by the federal government as Jackson was a War Hero and was perceived as acting in the best interest of the United States and had support from the Western Settlers.(Flemming 2005, p 48). The policy was prompted by economic pressures associated with cotton, tariff pressures suggesting concern over cessation, and concern for the security of the United States led to a removal policy that led to the oppression of Native Americans. Even Jackson' s biographer has had trouble rectifying this part of his administration. (Wallace 1993 p 50)
Flemming, Walter Lynwood, The Legacy of XXXXX XXXXX: Essays on Democracy, Indian Removal and Slavery (Walter Lynwood Fleming Lectures in Southern History) [Paperback], 1988, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN: 0-8071-1642-4
Wallace, Anthony F.C., The Long, Bitter Trail: XXXXX XXXXX and the Indians (Critical Issue) [Paperback], 1993, 12th printing 2000, ISBN: Libray of congress Cataloguing
I added some additional reading if you want to shorten this and add some of those interesting points. Note: all my references can be viewed via Amazon.com. Select book category, type in name in search bar and use the "peak inside feature" to examine contents if these books aren't available to you.
Here is the answer to question 4.
The Christian Apologist, four for centuries, pointed out that slavery made grace by faith available to Africans who would otherwise die pagans states Albert Raboteau in his book, Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South (1978 p 95). Raboteau exposes this myth by detailing the complex issues involved in the Baptism of slaves. Although Charles II in 1660 directed that slaves be introduced into the "misteries of salvation" and the Colonial Governors were required to provide this instruction to slaves, the conditions for the first slaves brought to the colonies did not afford this manner of instruction. (Raboteau 1978 p 99 ) Conflict between planters (masters) and ministers and missionaries were contentious and there was little free time afforded a slave for Christian instruction. six colonies in the south actually passed Acts specifying that religious freedom as granted by baptism did not remove the shackles of bondage. A slave was bonded to their Master which was distinct from the freedom afforded in the "misteries of salvation". Due to cultural and language barriers, and resistance by Masters very few early slaves were actually baptized. thus the assuage to slavery offered by the apologist were false.
As more slaves were born into slavery in the colonies and learned English slowly more slaves were introduced to Faith, mainly praying. Some Plantations provided Sunday services on the one day off, but slaves recognized the banter of "doing good" while Jesus was ignored.Rabteau describes how slave religion emerges as an invisible institution based around prayer.It wasn't until just before the Civil War that a majority of slaves could be considered Christians. The development of places and techniques to prevent oppressive Masters from hearing these prayer gatherings were called "hush harbors". Various techniques were developed to silence the joyous prayers and singing that generally concluded a gathering. Either by location, surrounding the place with dampened quilts, or using containers with water, while others were prepared to cover the mouth of a too spirit filled assembler. These techniques were developed to avoid the wrath of contemptuous Masters who would beat slaves found to be attending such a gathering. (Raboteau 1978 p 211-31) But this type of prayer meeting has been passed down from slaves to their descendants who still hold similar meetings. It should be pointed out that an interesting use of singing was developed. Specific spiritual songs were sung to provide solace during the days hard labor, but it also specified when a gathering was to be held. Specific songs and signs became necessary to prevent masters from being aware of the gatherings. "Steal Away to Jesus" was one such spiritual sung in the fields to let slaves know a prayer gathering or hush harbor was being held. (Raboteau 1978 p 13). Another point is that because many slaves could not read and write or didn't possess song books, songs frequently had to be sung as the spirit led and this type of singing, like the prayer meet-in has been passed down through generations. Christianity as a religion for slaves was slow to develop. When it did it did so, it went undetected until former slaves or their ancestors shared details about the hush harbors - the forerunner of the contemporary prayer meeting. The Christian Apologists have misrepresented the real bondage of slavery.
Raboteau, Albert J., Slave Religion: The "Invisible Institution" in the Antebellum South 1978 [Paperback] 1980, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0-19-502705-1
Blassingame, John W., The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South, 1972 [Paperback] 1979, Oxford University Press Inc., ISBN: 0-19-502563-6
(Points out on p 105 that the intensification of strong emotions that are a characterestic of the modern American black culture were developed from a necessity to endure a life they despised- Alain Locke)
Levine, Lawrence W., Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (Galaxy Books) [Paperback] 1977, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0-19-502374-9
(This author page 6 and first few pages points out that early writers about a slave culture point out there are not identifiable chararacterists because they were forced to leave behind their culture which was diverse and varied so there wasn't a single unifying clutural trait. Levine takes exception to this shallow characterization because he identifuies a strong cultural connection in their "song style" which he argues links descendants of slaves to their African heritage. Levine cites Alan Lomax's argument that musical style is one of the most conservative of cultural traits even with musical changes, musical style remains intact, which he said is born out by slave music - the style belongs to a shared culture or ancestory with Africa.)
Here is the final answer. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. I was glad to assist. Please familiarize yourself with the references when you have time as i pointed out in a prior post.
An interesting shared characteristic about the reform movements in the mid 19th Century is that they were led by charismatic individuals who were "determined", many from the North East. (Muckenhoupt 2003 p 58) Lyman Beecher was a leader in the Reform movement associated with the Evangelical Church which pressed for the reduction of alcoholic beverages. (Laurie 2005 p 33) She coined the phrase; "a drunk electorate would dig the grave of our liberties and entomb our glory". She also subscribed to the views of Dr. Benjamin Rush who published as early as 1784 published a report on the effects of spirits on the human body and mind. Dr. Rush was also a signer of the Declaration of Independence whose publication led to the creation of the Temperance movement in 1808. (Walters 1999, p 127) Also around this time, some treaties made with the Native Americans such as in North East Ohio and the Senecas in New York, were condemned because they were made only after the Indians were first plied with liquor. (Fleming 1988) A women's rights movement was led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott at the Seneca Fall Convention. (Walters 1999 p 109-113) They wrote a declaration of women's rights. Horace Mann led the reformation movement for public education which eventually passed with the backing of the Trade Unions. (Walters 1999 p 158)Teachers Unions are some of the strongest unions in the country which are a by product of public education. Dorothy Dix led the way to better treatment for the mentally ill. Through her efforts the first mental health hospital was built in the state of Massachusetts. (Muckenhoupt 2003 p 58)Besides the charismatic persons who led these movements, the various political parties that were forming such as the Free Soilers, Liberty party and so forth sought alliances with various groups for support. (Laurie 2005, p 62) According to Laurie in his book Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform (2005) political party leaders had to determine whether to champion a single issue, multiple issues, or to align themselves with churches like the Evangelical Church. These types of alliances gave impetus to the reformer's cause which otherwise may not have impacted change alone. For example to gain labors support support for public education could align large segments of society with a party. The liberty Party leaders by aligning with the Evangelical Church backed the reduction of alcohol consumption.
Muckenhoupt, Margaret, Dorothea Dix: Advocate for Mental Health Care (Oxford Portraits) [Hardcover] 2003, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0-19-512921-0
Laurie, Bruce, Beyond Garrison: Antislavery and Social Reform [Hardcover]2005, Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 0-521-60517-2
Walters, Ronald G., American Reformers, 1815-1860, 1978, Revised Edition [Paperback] 1999, HarperCollins, Library of Congress Catalogue HN64.W2136
1) Describe postwar expansion after the War of 1812 and explain how it resulted in the Panic of 1812.
I can work on your answer tonight. When do you need this completed by?
By the way, did you mean the Panic of 1819 rather than 1812 ? The War of 1812 - the second War of Independence is certainly connected to this Panic.
Please add any additional payment for this additional question and any bonus is appreciated when you click on the accept answer button. Thank you. Enjoy the holidays.
Murray Rothsband in the following comment; "an instructive picture of a people coming to grips with the problems of a business depression, problems which, in modified forms, were to plague until the present day.", synthesized the cause of the panic. The panic of 1819 resulted as one of the reactions in the market place when there is a "business depression". (Rothsband 1962) The government's economist still continue to wrestle with this aspect of the economy's behavior "today", even half a century after Rothband's insightful comment, it is still a true statement. So its roots lie in the natural adjustments of an economy from market influences.
The War of 1812 brought two changes to the economy of the young country. It had interrupted shipments (exports) to Europe and imports. (Taylor 2010) The conflict between Britain and France had been impacting shipping because of France's interruption of ships was referred to by historians as the "Quasi War". With the declaration of war by Monore and Congress, one of the reasons being for Britain's continuing to board and remove sailors from U.S. Ships, the country's ability to export was further exasperated. (Taylor 2010 p 101) Of course imports of goods were also disrupted and so domestic manufacturing (or war time manufacturing) increased to meet increased demand, especially by the South.
To pay for the cost of the Army and Navy the government borrowed from its banks. The specie held by the banks that were backed by the Government's "Good faith and Credit" allowed the banks to release a rash of money. This led to the creation of more banks to handle the increased supply in hard currency which also led to inflationary pressures. (Panic of 1819, Blue and Gray Trail) (Rothsband 2007) As it was costing more to buy goods because of the increased demand created by the influx of paper currency the cost to purchase raw goods such as cotton doubled in price. So during this "war" boom profiteers prospered by this change in the market. The government also generated revenue to pay its debt by selling vast land holdings to the public such as acquired by the Louisiana Purchase before the War. (Panic of 1819, Blue and Gray Trail)
When the war ended imports resumed which offered an increase supply of goods and an alternative market. Essentially, additional goods in the market place (another outlet to spend money in) reduced the available money that had spurred inflation and reduced demand for internal goods. So Congress turned to the Second Bank of the United States whose activities had the opposite impact. (Rothsband 2007) Requiring specie transactions rather than currency only caused an expansion rather than a contraction. The boom continued with an unstable foundation until 1819.
The relationship between specie and currency began to lead to a shortage in the amount of specie held by banks. In the end this created a panic that caused a rush on banks causing insolvency. This led to bankruptcies, a drop in prices - commodities and real estate. A shift in real estate as a transferable asset or a form of currency was one of the vehicles that fueled investment. With lower property prices investors would be less likely to invest in new enterprises or ventures. Property was the chief security for an enterprise that failed and it had been the young government's principle source of revenue. Many of the debtors were those who had purchased land from the federal government. (Rothsband 2007 p 37) Vast holdings of land acquired by the Louisiana Purchase and other lands were made available for sell by the government- such as when territories were organized into states. The land purchases were usually financed with cheap credit. These "debtors" holding federal land purchases were able to pressure elected officials - politicians (some were government property owners also) into pressing for "debtor relief bills". (Rothsband 2007 p 37) President Monroe sided with the public sentiment and supported passage of a third debt relief bill. The effect, however, was to drive prices of property - real estate even lower. Reforms for debt relief were pushed for at the state level also. In the end, citizens who had not speculated in purchasing land from the government ended up paying for the debt from the folly of those who had speculated.
In the current real estate crisis, involving failing mortgages between 2007 and 2010, citizens who have not purchased beyond their means do not feel that their taxes (a burden should be imposed on them) should bail out the financial institutions or persons who made speculative mortgages. Very little is printed in the media or broadcast in the media about local government's role which looked blindly in the other direction as artificial property appraisals were made to grant these mortgages because it pushed up property taxes and increased their coffers which served their purposes- at least until another "bust" in the economy occurred. The kinds of economic issues that the government had to address due to the Panic of 1819 continue to be the same kinds of economic issues debated by the government today.
Panic of 1819, (Article extracted on-line Dec 2010), Blue and Gray Trail historical archives. http://blueandgraytrail.com/event/Panic_of_1819
Rothband, Murray, The Panic of 1819, 1962, Dorctorial Disertation[http://www.mises.org/rothbard/panic1819.pdf]
Rothbard, Murray, Panic of 1819 Reactions and Policies [Hardcover] 2007, Ludwig von Mises Institurte, 1973, Amc Press, and 1962 Columbia University Press, ISBN 13: 978-1-933550-08-4.
Taylor, Alan, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, & Indian Allies [Deckle Edge][Hardcover] 2010, Alfred K. Knopf Publisher, ISBN: 978-1-4000-4265-4.
1) Describe postwar expansion after the war of 1812, and explain how it led to the panic of 1819
2) In your opinion, who was the most effective and influential president in the period 1800-1824 ? Cite evidence that supports your choice.
APA style, Cite all references, 250 -350 words
1) What were some of the common elements between the servant and slave trade and the Witchcraft Phenomenon?
APA Cite all references 250-350 words
This required just a single reference as it was thorough and current - 2010. But you may want to expand...I will add some additional references you can look inside at Amazon.com. This is a controversial topic which would benefit by more research also.
Please leave positive feedback with any additional contribution you make and bonus you add when you accept the additional answer.
Understanding Witchcraft in North America during colonization is a controversial topic.The concept of a witch and faulty assumptions about how our ancestors viewed the world have fostered a limited view of witchcraft in the new world. This paper exposes some of the myths by explaining a common link between the servant/slave trade and the New England witchcraft phenomenon.
What is a witch? The answer is not as simple as the stereotype of the New England witch portrayed in many texts about the Puritan/Calvinist communities. Witches were everywhere in North America. (Games 2010, p 3) Witches were persons who a) performed harmful acts and/or b) threatened community order. (Games 2010, p 3). As colonization, domination, and exploration of the new world took place the European Continent and Africa recognized witchcraft as common place. Between 1420 and 1780 it is determined from records that approximately 90,000 persons were accused of witchcraft. About half, 45,000, were executed. (Games 2020, p 4) When one examines the areas of Africa that slaves were brought from and the belief systems practiced there, obtained from a European merchant's view point (where most of our information comes from) the practices of the slaves were considered pagan and affiliated with the Devil. (Games 2010, p 19) And in America itself the blame for diseases sickness that would wipe out an entire village was blamed on witchcraft by Native Americans long before the Europeans arrived. (Games 2010, p 5)
Not only were witches everywhere in North America, the land itself was viewed as being a land requiring restoration. Alison Games, author of ' Witchcraft in Early North America' (2010) pointed out in this statement; "Christian Europeans believed in the Devil as surely as the believed in God, and the Devil had loyal helpers--witches--especially in North America, a land European theologians regarded as the last bastion of Satan." (Games 2010, p 5). Whether Puritan colonist, a Chesapeake speculator, a slave who found him or her self in a new community, the Spanish conquerors to the South, or the Native Americans, in the 17th Century, witchcraft provided a frame of reference for how people related to and explained their circumstances and understood the new world. Games summarized this sentiment; "Witchcraft was one important way in which people made sense of their turbulent and changing world" (Games 2010 p 5).
Games, Alison, "Witchcraft in Early North America" (American Controversies Series) [Hardcover] 2010, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., ISBN: 978-1-4422-0357-0.
This is additional information if you want to have two references - this author refers to the "shared intensity". Refer to the other answer about the intensity of the prayer meeting for example. This "intensity of belief" led to accusations of witchcraft and helped slaves comprehend their oppressive circumstances was common in both communities. And you can examine the book to comprehend the concept of monotheism and reformation which helped end the witchcraft accusations and trials and helped end slavery and promoted abolitionist causes (a missionary zeal).
Stark, Rodney, For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery [Hardcover] 2003, Princeton University Press, ISBN: 0-691-11436-6 (pbk).
Stark would argue that they shared a "religious intensity". (Chapter I, p 17) He also pointed that religious reforms in Europe (monotheism) influenced the ending of the witchcraft epidemic and also fostered seeds for abolitionist thought - that a man had to be free to make a covenant with the Lord (God) something that cannot occur freely when he is in an oppressed state. (general subject of the book)
1) In your opinion, who was the most effective and influential president in the period 1800-1824, Cite evidence that supports your choice.
250- 350 words APA, cite all references.
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I'm working on it now, but please try a little more notice on writing assignments please because I never know how many i have ahead of your request. Thank you, Tim.
Check for answer at Midnight Eastern.
Here is your answer, please add any renumeration and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. Thank you. Note: Get the Publisher and ISBN for one reference.
In the period between 1800 and 1824 the United States had four Presidents who served full-terms. Because XXXXX XXXXX, "Old Hickory" had just been elected I excluded him from the list of nominees. Among this list, only one of the Presidents is even mentioned by Political Scientist and Historians on the same hand as the top three; XXXXX XXXXX, Abraham Lincoln, and Franklin Delanor Roosevelt. And that is Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson had four key accomplishments. First, he had one of the most effective Cabinets. His Secretary of State, James Madison, helped him secure the Louisiana Purchase with France and Napoleon. Madison also followed Jefferson for two terms as president himself. His Secretary of the Treasury assisted Jefferson in eliminating the National Debt so that Jefferson was able to present to Congress a budget seeking to end internal taxes in his first year. Joseph Ellis in his book about Jefferson made this positive observation about his cabinet; " His cabinet proved to one of the ablest and the most stable collection of executive advisers in the history of the American presidency" (Ellis p 222) This was important because Jefferson had observed the frustrations Adams had experienced with his cabinet.
In thirteen scholar surveys, conducted between 1948 and 2005, Jefferson has never been ranked lower than 5th and has been ranked #2 once and #3 once in that period. (Worldlingo.com 2010) It is his fourth accomplishment that he had the good sense to authorize Madison to act on immediately when this unexpected purchase fell his way which maintains his high ranking. His fourth accomplishment, and easily the most remembered, is the Louisiana Purchase for the bargain price of 15 million dollars which doubled the size of the United States- that whether dumb luck or because he was always amicable toward France- this land grab also secured New Orleans and ended the risk of further European alliances with the Native Americans. Cormac O'Brien began the section of his book about Jefferson by pointing out what another President quipped about Jefferson; " In 1962, when President John F. Kennedy entertained a group of Nobel Prize winners in the White House, he heralded the event as the most distinguished gathering of intellectual talent that ever graced the Executive Mansion--except for when Thomas Jefferson dined there alone." (O'Brien 2004, pg 15)
Ellis, Joseph S., American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson [Paperback] 1998 Vintage Books, ISBN: 0-679-44490-4
O'Brien, Cormac, Secret Lives of the U.S. Presidents: What Your Teachers Never Told You About the Men of the White House [Paperback] 2004, revised 2009, Quirk Productions Inc., ISBN: 978-1-59474-344-3
Ridings, William J., and McIver, Stuart, "Rating The Presidents: A Ranking of U.S. Leaders, from the Great and Honorable to the Dishonest and Incompetent" [Paperback] Oct 1, 2000.
Historical Rankings of United States Presidents, Copy Right 2010 http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Historical_rankings_of_United_States_Presidents
1) What were some of the new military technologies in use during the Civil War? With the implementation of this new technology many label the Civil War as the first modern war. Is the advent and implementation of technology enough reason to consider the Civil War the first modern war? Explain your answer with supporting
2) Compare and contrast the political attitudes of Stephen A. Douglas with those of Abraham Lincoln. Explain how those attitudes determined the outcome of the election of 1860.
3) What were the Jim Crow laws? In your opinion, do these laws still have an impact today? Why, or why not?
4) Discuss the economic and social conditions of blacks in the South during Reconstruction. Include in your discussion the topics of education, farming, income, and family life.
Here are a few more. Same style APA, and list all references. 275- 375 words
Yes, that will be fine. Thank you
Here is the answer to the first question. Review the word count and references as I wanted to be thorough. An interesting question and I avoided the patent answer. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept the answer.
The Civil War marked a period in the history of warfare in which new technologies were utilized by both sides which also led military planners to finally adopt new battlefield strategies. When Generals realized that waging offensive wars in a Napoleonic manner against defensive armies was not leading to decisive victories, even with superior forces, the seeds of modern warfare were sown. (Griffith, 1989/2001). Although some historians and writers consider the Civil War as the first modern war because of the technologies employed (Aeragon 2010) and modernized procurement methods (Wilson 2006) it lacked two key elements that others use to define modern warfare and military strategy. Briefly I will discuss some of the modern technologies employed and then explain how they fall short in defining the Civil War as modern warfare.
Some of the first applications of new technology were by the Confederates. (Edwin 1996) The new artillery fired at the small garrison at Fort Sumter on 14 April 1861caused the federal troops to surrender after just two days of shelling. But four days later the Confederate's leaders struck again. The federal armory at Harper's Ferry was the objective. The logistics planning included rapid deployment decisions made with improved communications and transportation. The telegraph was used to coordinate the movement of troops and artillery to arrive at a decisive point. And the trains and tracks built put into operation only ten years earlier for commerce was able to transport men and artillery over night. With hardly a battle this rapid deployment secured one of the two key manufacture-ring facilities the federal government had authorized. (Hearn 1996, pp 53-57) About 15,000 muskets fell into the hands of the confederates early in the war. The machinery used for manufacturing was removed and shipped deeper into the South by the same trains that had transported the soldiers and four pieces of artillery. In spite of putting new technology to use early in the Civil War its Generals still fell into utilizing Napoleonic battlefield strategies. Grady McWhitney describes how southern leaders sent their bravest and proudest men to their deaths against entrenched federal forces that utilized artillery to thin the ranks when the charge came and the front lines would utilize their new repeating rifles to finish off the remnants. (McWhitney 1984) The name of his book tells all: "Attack and Die:Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage". Generals on both sides continued to employ old strategies against newer technologies. Newer technologies meant that soldiers did not have to be brave to fight. Some strategist in discussing warfare refer to the Civil War strategy as "total warfare" because of how the battles are conducted and therefore it is not identified as true modern warfare. (Absolute Astronomy 2010)
Many modern warfare strategist recognize the modern era of warfare as beginning at the end of World War II and developing during the Korean War. It is correlated with the sophisticated use of "information technology".(Absolute Astronomy 2010). Edwin Fishel points out in his book that the term "intelligence gathering" did not exist throughout the Civil War. (Fishel 1996) During the Civil War technologies were employed that constitute intelligence gathering and assist military planners, but there was not a formal school of thought. Two good examples pointed out by Fischel was balloon reconnaissance and visual signaling by flag and torch. It was the balloonist who pointed out how they could relay battlefield information. Fishel pointed out; "It was the world's first successful system of alphabetic communication in forward areas." (Fishel 1996 p 10) And although invented by a federalist military officer, Major Albert Myer, it was the Confederate army that put it to use first on the front lines. One would point out that having one officer, Winfield Scott, equipping a "secret service" single handedly hardly constitutes the modern methods of information gathering such as the National Security Agency (NSA) gathers. The biggest difference in modern warfare not only involves information technology, but how that information once obtained is used to conduct warfare. Some aspects of the Civil War were conducted in a modern manner, but its Generals employed Napoleonic strategies. Jordan, et al, point out that modern strategic studies, which is connected to modern warfare, is associated with one man- Bernard Brodie, and one invention- the nuclear weapon. (Jordan et al 2008, p 18) Civilian strategist rather than military strategist, led the debate during the Cold War according to the authors of "Understanding Modern Warfare". The Civil War was conducted and planned with minimal civilian over-site, whereas civilian analyst- and even information gathering utilizes civilians, in designing and over seeing modern warfare strategy.
Aeragon, "The US Civil War, the First Modern War", 2009, (down loaded from the internet Jan 2011)http://www.aeragon.com/03/
Fishel, Edwin, "The Secret War for the Union: The Untold Story of Military Intelligence in the Civil War" [Paperback]1996, Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN: 0-395-90136-7.
Griffith, Paddie (2001) Battle Tactics of the Civil War, Yale Nota Bean book, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-08461-7 (pbk)
Hearn, Chester G. SixYears of Hell: Harpers Ferry During the Civil War [Paperback]1996, Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN:0-8071-2440-0. (Pg 54-55)
Hoeman, George (2010) The American Civil War Homepage, URL:http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html
Jordan, David, Kiras, James D., Lonsdale David J., Speller, Ian, Tuck, Christopher, and Walton Dale C., " Understanding Modern Warfare" [Paperback] 2008, Cambridge University Press, ISBN: 978-0-521-70038-2.
McWhiney, Grady and Jamieson Perry D., "Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage" [Paperback]1984, University of Alabama Press, ISBN:(NNN) NNN-NNNN EAN 9780817302290.
Modern Warfare (article) 2010http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Modern_warfare Stoker, Donald (2010) The Grand Design: Strategy and the U.S. Civil War, Oxford University Press, NY NY 10016. ISBN 978-0-19-537305-9
XXXXX, XXXXX R., The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861--1865 (Johns Hopkins Studies in the History of Technology) [Paperback] 2006, John Hopkins University Press, ISBN: 0-8018-8348-2.
Here is the answer to your second question. Again review the word count. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
An examination of the political attitudes between Douglas and Lincoln are best understood by the debates held during the campaign for the Illinois US Senate seat. Douglas defeated Lincoln as a Northern Democrat and retained his seat, but the debates elevated Lincoln's conservative position which served him well when the two men faced off again for the Presidency where Douglas required more than just the votes of his home state. In those debates Lincoln referred to Henry Clay of Kentucky not less than 41 times. (Foner 2010, p 18) Clay had succeeded James Madison as president of the American Colonization Society in 1836 and was its president until his death in 1852. Clay staunchly believed that slavery was a "great evil" and was the greatest threat to the union. Lincoln was clearly a man of Clay's sentiment, especially when Clay also pointed out that slavery impacted Kentucky's economy compared to its neighbor, Ohio, to the North. According to Eric Foner, Lincoln won because of the nature of the American Electoral System. He wrote; "Lincoln's victory did not arise from the division among his opponents, but from the nature of the American electoral system, it enabled a party to capture the Presidency by concentrating its votes in the most populace regions" (Foner 2010, p 145) Neither Douglas or Lincoln captured many votes in the South. Because slightly more of the nation's population was in the non-slavery part of the country it was the Northern voters in the most populace regions who decided the Presidency and the fate of the nation.
So one must examine what the key platform differences were between Republicans and Northern Democrats. According to a Stephen A Douglas web site: "The Lincoln Douglas debates offered each candidate the opportunity to further express his opinion about the slavery question. Lincoln was not an abolitionist, but he did want to stop slavery from spreading into new areas. Douglas, who had seen a secession movement in 1850, believed that to prohibit the spread of slavery by legislation was to invite civil war." Lincoln did not want slavery to spread into the Western territories, but would allow it in states where it already existed. He offered that same position to the Southern states who were willing to join the union again during the Civil War. By failing to put the union first the slave states lost the right to slavery as an institution by an executive order. Douglas failed to demonstrate principles Northern voters, especially abolitionist, could trust because he was willing to allow slavery to expand into the territories in order to avoid the South succeeding from the Union. This demonstrated a fundamental character weakness that the majority of Northern voters picked up on. The president can not allow himself to be backed into a corner when leading our nation. Douglas also had a history that showed he put politics ahead of character because he was willing to forgo his national beliefs in order to secure passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 which was to promote Chicago as the terminus of the transcontinental railroad. In order to gain curry for his Bill from Southern legislators he had allowed a repeal of the Missouri compromise. In our modern language he was bringing home pork to his section of the country which got him reelected as a Senator, but it probably the factor which cost him and his ambition the Presidency. Even if the other three candidates votes combined had gone to a single party's candidate running against Lincoln, Lincoln would still have been elected President. The population had increased in the North as well prior to the Civil War because of the various building projects and beginnings of the Industrial Revolution which required immigrant laborers. Lincoln had garnered more popular votes than any candidate before him. It should be pointed out that the "prairie state's" Senatorial election held the eyes of the nation as was noted by President Buchanan. (Zarefsky pp201-204) It was contentious to say the least. Republicans had charged that Douglas and his Democratic party, because the railroad employed immigrant Irishmen was transporting them by train to vote in less popular areas where their votes would make a difference. Perhaps it did. Because although Lincoln garnered the most votes in the Illinois race- 125,430 compared to 121, 609 for Douglas he carried less legislative districts and lost the election. That practice was not ended until the 17th Amendment, but it made the Republican charges about the manipulation of Irish voters more credible when placed in the proper perspective. Lincoln and the Republican party learned from this defeat when he was their presidential candidate less than two years later. Lincoln secured the most popular votes where he also obtained the most electoral college votes. Lincoln just had to defeat Douglas and the system twice!
Foner, Eric, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery [Hardcover] 2010, W.W. Norton & Company, ISBN: 978-0-393-06618-0.
Stephen A. Douglas Association, 2011http://www.stephenadouglas.org/douglas-biography.html
Zarefsky, David, "Lincoln, Douglas, and Slavery: In the Crucible of Public Debate" [1st Hard-back 1990], [Paperback 1993] University of Chicago Press, ISBN: 0-226-97876-1.
Here is your third answer. Again review the word count. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
The Era of "Jim Crow" began around 1890 at the same time as the Progressive movement. (Packard & Packard 2010) It has roots in the performance of a white minstrel who had observed a slave singing and doing a dance. Some historians claim that Crow referred to a slave owner, but the term was used to denote that freed blacks were inferior to "whiteness".(Davis 2011) Another term "Buzzard" from the same rhyme Jim Crow came from was used used by blacks to describe other blacks who continued to ride segregated street cars while the Jim Crow laws were being protested. (Kelley 2010, p 180) Many Southern states began enacting legislation that separated blacks and whites. The year of 1919 was considered an exceptionally violent period of the Jim Crow era and was named the "Red Summer". (Packard & Packard 2010, p 144) Many rural southern blacks had moved to the North to obtain jobs there and ran into clashes in the urban areas. One overlooked reason for much of this conflict involved immigrants who saw the blacks who moved in as a threat to their jobs. And Southern states were also threatened by a loss of its cheap supply of labor and tried to make black migration illegal. (Packard & Packard 2010, pp 108-10) Following Reconstruction the US Congress had passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875. But in 1883 the Supreme Court voted that the act was unconstitutional. The court's ruling paved the way for Southern state's to enact legislation because of comments held by the court about the 14th Amendment. (Davis 2011) In 1896 the Supreme Court's ruling in Plessy vs Ferguson further reinforced the strength of the Jim Crow laws.(Kelley 2010) Another event prior to the Supreme Court Ruling, referred to as the Compromise of 1877 effectively ended reconstruction. (Davis 2011) In the contested election of 1876 neither candidate had received the necessary electoral votes to be declared the president. Samuel J. Tilden had received the most popular votes and only had needed one more electoral vote to be declared the president whereas Rutherford B Hayes needed 20 votes. To resolve the matter a 15 member committee was created - 5 from the House or Representatives, 5 from the Senate, and 5 from the Supreme court. To secure an 8 to 7 vote in favor of the Republican Hayes various agreements were made to get the Southern Democrats to support the Republican candidate. (Woodward 1996) The compromise restored many democrats to positions in government and it removed the federal troops from the South. This ended reconstruction and ended any enforcement of the Civil Rights Act until it was ultimately ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Perhaps the most blatant laws involved marriage. Between 1870 and 1884 eleven southern states had banned "miscegenation" - interracial marriages. (Davis 2011) One historian referred to these laws as the ultimate Jim Crow laws because the intent is clearly to keep blacks and whites genetically separated. One aspect of the Jim Crow era that has continued to this century involves political party support, vagrancy laws that still exist in most towns, and rulings of the illegality of the Death Penalty are residual carryover of the Jim Crow era. (Alexander 2010)
XXXXX, XXXXX, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness" [Hardcover] 2010, The New Press, ISBN: 978-1-59558-103-7.
XXXXX, XXXXX L. F., Ph. D., "Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth" [Essay], down loaded from the internet 2011. http://jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm
Kelley, Blair L. M., "Right to Ride: Streetcar Boycotts and African American Citizenship in the Era of Plessy v. Ferguson" (The John Hope Franklin Series in African American History and Culture) [Paperback]2010, The University of North Carolina Press, ISBN: 978-0-8078-3354-4.
Packard, Jerrold M. and Packard, Jerrold , "American Nightmare: The History of Jim Crow", 2002, [Paperback] 2003, ISBN: 0-312-26122-5 & 0-312-30241-X (pbk).
Woodward, C. Vann, "Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction" [Paperback] 1996, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0-19-506423-2.
Here is your final answer. Please review word count. Utilize the references if you think it needs more examples as identified in the question. as always text can be viewed Amazon.com (books). use the peak inside/search feature. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
Reconstruction actually began during the Civil War. Almost 200,000 black soldiers had served in the federal army and navy. These soldiers had abandoned plantations and had fled to the North. (Foner 2003) Many historians cite this as one of the reasons President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation - an opportunity for slave states to return to the union and maintain their institutions of slavery. Because the southern states declined his offer to preserve the union without further bloodshed, by executive order, should the federal army prevail slavery would be ended in the South. After the war these former black soldiers had added impetus for seeking full status as citizens. One roadblock to achieving reconstruction, beyond the conditions that slavery had imposed on black Americans, was also similar to the politics that imbued the campaigns between Douglas and Lincoln. Moderate whites in the North and South now looked for ways to achieve national reconciliation and therefore were willing to abandon the defense of African American citizenship. So suddenly former black slaves had become free people, but without their own country. (Kelley 2010, p 4) Many blacks who demanded their own land faced manipulation to return to work instead for their former oppressive owners as serfs on the land. (Foner 2003) "Forty acres and a mule" was the rallying cry for many former slaves.Those who became share croppers faced a similar problem as white share croppers. They required credit from merchants, however, and a cycle of debt occurred for many lucky enough to have some land to office. (Foner 2003) Afro-Creoles in New Orleans sought ambitious political and reform agendas after the Civil War. And other freed slaves went West to Texas and so forth to look their relatives because they were often separated from when they were sold to a new master. The condition of suddenly freed slaves was in many ways much harsher than it had been while the slave owner or "master" looked over them. many historians ignored this new plight by instead focusing on what "white southerners were forced to endure". (Stamp 1965, forward) Kenneth Stamp gives examples of the words used to get sympathy from the Republican controlled administration in order to end reconstruction; "military despotism", "federal tyranny", "Negro rule", and "Africanization". Lincoln in his debates with Douglas, for example had assured Republicans and swing voters that he did not advocate a society of equality between black slaves and white people. According to Stampp here is a part of what Lincoln said in one of the debates: "I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races,-..." (Stampp 1965, pp 32-33) Judkin Browning captures in her chapter of "North Carolina in the Era of the Civil War" what it was like during reconstruction for former black slaves to assert themselves when he relays what a northern provost marshall reported in his letter dated January 14th, 1863 in this passage: "Mr. Davis and Mr. Rieger together tied the woman to a tree her arms over her head and then whipped her severely, the flesh on her arms where the ropes went was badly lacerated and her arms covered with blood when I saw her-- she was only released upon the preemptory order of a private of the Ninth New Jersey, who says the treatment was very cruel--Her crime was that she demanded her daughter whom Mr. Davis retained in slavery; she is a smart intelligent women and quite able to support herself and children." (Escott 2008, p 69) Whether or not the "Unionist men" were punished for their "cruelty" was not indicated. but the passage points out a problem that newly freed slaves had. They did not have an understanding of how to utilize community and organize after years of being in bondage. One would expect some understanding by the freed slaves that the Southerners after having lost a brutal war, losing so many of their men, and losing their way of life would be bitter and would look for the least provocation to exact their brand of vengeance. Yet this women went alone rather than organizing with other former slaves and going as a group to seek her daughter's freedom from these cruel men. She also did not first seek out the Federal soldiers either. This is an example of what most newly freed black slaves faced that had remained in the South.
EXXXXX, XXXXX D, "North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction", Judkin Browning (Contributor), " Visions of Freedom and Civilization Opening before Them: African Americans search for Autonomy during military in North Carolina" pp 69-100, [Hardcover] 2008, The University of North Carolina Press, ISBN: 978-0-8078-5901-8 (pbk)
Foner, Eric and Mahoney, Olivia, "America's Reconstruction: People and Politics After the Civil War [On-line Exhibit] 2003, down loaded from the internet January 2011 http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/reconstruction/section1/section1_01.html
Stampp, Kenneth M, ".The Era of Reconstruction", 1865-1877 [Paperback] 1965, Vintage Books, ISBN: 0-394-70388-X
Here are some additional questions I need help with. They require APA format and have to be between 250 350 words, cite all references.
1) Discuss genetic influences on behavior.
2) Compare and contrast descriptive studies with formal experiments.
3) Discuss the experience of pain, and describe the impact of culture on the perception of pain.
4) Explain the importance of REM sleep and dreams.
Here is the answer to your first question. Review the word count that you need. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is much appreciated when you accept your answer. Take care. Tim.
The application of genetic research to explain physical traits is about 110 years old and is associated with Gregor Mendel's "principles of heredity" at the beginning of the twentieth century. (Bateson 1996) A supporter of Mendel was William Bateson (1861-1926) who is the father of the term "genetics"- the study of heredity and variation. (Mayr 1982) In order to fully appreciate the field of Genetics a basic understanding of the biological sciences is important. Quantitative genetics became popular in understanding the variation in traits within species such as height and milk yield. The field of evolutionary quantitative genetics was founded by R.A. Fisher, Sewall Wright, and J.B.S. Haldane in 1918. The purpose was to predict the response to selection given data on the phenotype and relationships of individuals. (Roff 1997) An explanation of the term "phenotype" is beyond the scope of this paper which is summary in nature. Bruce Walsh (University of Arizona) provided a shortened explanation in his article; "Almost any trait that can be defined shows variation, both within and between populations." Walsh clarified the role of quantitative genetics; " Classical genetics typically deals with single genes of large effect, while quantitative genetics often assumes a large number of genes, each with small effects, influence trait variation." It is important because it has provided the theoretical foundations for plant and animal breeding (commercial chickens - i.e. Tyson Foods safe guards its research in this area) and for much of human and evolutionary genetics. (Walsh 2001) In order to utilize the quantitative methods of analysis Genetics researchers had to also have a fundamental understanding of math and statistical tools - regression and correlation, which were developed before 1918 by Galton and Pearson between 1918 and 1920.(Walsh 2001) The field of population genetics differs from quantitative genetics because researchers have a different goal. Instead of studying how a trait is inherited, it seeks to describe how the frequency of alleles, which actually control the trait. (McClean 1996) A simple explanation of alleles is the acceptance that DNA determines the characteristics of organisms and that random mutations in organisms' can result in slight changes in organisms' offspring's DNA. As these slight changes accumulate there can be significant changes in the organism such that evolution is recognized. (Plaisted 2011) This process is analyzed mathematically also. Genetic research was so astounding that policy makers expected it to eventually explain the trait of behavior.
The search for a specific gene that influences behavior has led to the "Nature-Nurture Debate over behavior". (Parens et al 2006) Determining whether environment versus genetic influences have the greatest impact on specific types of behavior is of concern to policy makers. For example, do certain genes indicate that a person is more predisposed toward eating disorders or is the behavior more influenced by environmental factors - parent's behavior, type of food available, ease of preparation, marketing and so forth. Certain specific illnesses, even a gene that explains why some persons become alcoholics more easily than others in the same environment, which identification of irregular chromosomes have alluded to over ambitious expectations that genetics would eventually explain a variety of behavioral traits. (Parens et al 2006) The majority of chromosomes are not irregular and this has made it difficult to ascribe behavior that is not linked to an irregular chromosome. Although, genetic research has made great strides in the last twenty years, Johnathan Beckwith argued that conclusive results have not been obtained that explain specific behaviors because researchers have not sufficiently integrated into their studies of behavior "the analysis of familial, cultural, and social influences on human behavior and human aptitudes" (Parens et al 2006, p 94) According to the text book, " Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics: Science, Ethics, and Public Conversation" (2006) this has led to a new direction in the field of genetic research regarding human behavior. Beckwith identified this new area of research as "Gene-environment interactions" (Parens et al 2006, p95) He provided three examples involving this new research which explains how a gene in one environment, that has no detectable influence on social interaction, but in another environment has a significant effect. Research regarding anti-social behavior has been promising. Another social area studied with this technique is susceptibility to stress. This has revealed that a short version of the serotonin transporter gene is connected to this vulnerability. Research into influences on IQ are being studied to determine if different environments affect different genes. According to Anholt and Mackay; "understanding behaviors requires a multidisciplinary perspective, with regulation of gene expression at its core."(Anholt & Mackay 2010, p 1). The field of behavioral genetics is not clearly defined yet, but has evolved by merging with experimental psychology, classical ethology with evolutionary biology and genetics, and has attached neural science- which is attempting to explain how the brain behaves.
Anholt, Robert R.H., and Mackay, Trudy F.C., "Principles of Behavioral Genetics" [Paperback] 2010, Academic Press, ISBN: 978-0-12-372575-2.
Bateson, William, "Mendel's Principles of Heredity", [1913 Translation of Mendels's original work with added commentary]1996, Oxford University Press
Mayr, E., "The Growth of Biological Thought: diversity, evolution, and inheritance", 1982,Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
McClean, Phillip, "Population and Evolutionary Genetics: Population Variability" [Article] 1997, downloaded from the internet, January 2011,http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/popgen/popgen1.htm
Parens, Erik, Chapman, Audrey R., and Press, Nancy (Editors), " Wrestling with Behavioral Genetics: Science, Ethics, and Public Conversation" [Paperback]2006, The John Hopkins University Press, ISBN: 0-8018-8224-9.
Plaisted, David A., "Population Genetics Made Simple", Down loaded from the Internet, January 2011.http://www.cs.unc.edu/~plaisted/ce/genetics.html Roff D.A., "Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics", 1997, Chapman & Hall, New York.
Walsh, Bruce, (University of Arizona) "Quantitative Genetics" [Article] 2001 Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, down loaded from the Internet, January 2011http://nitro.biosci.arizona.edu/zdownload/papers/ELSQuantGen.pdf.
Yes, The class is Psychology
I expect to have the third and fourth answers complete by 6pm today. These are a different subject area then your previous questions. Here is your second answer. Note: I added the last part by Geek and Geek - see if you want to keep it to show the future of research. But the other reason is that Geek and Geek's book discussed good information also about your first question, for example they point about specifics about the first break through of chromosome/gene research was in 1959 for Downs syndrome. Soon they identified genes that are associated with a variety of birth diseases/conditions, but that is not the same as identifying behavioral traits and determining the role the gene (now polypeptides also) plays as well as environmental factors. These words are used in a broad sense. Genes themselves, such as in neurons can be influenced by environmental factors within the body, cell, etc! Anyway here is your next answer. Review your word count. Again please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
Descriptive studies can describe or explain complex systems. The famous artist Leonardo Davinchi, for example, engaged in descriptive studies in his identification of the skeleton's muscular system. Besides describing complex systems, such as neural process descriptive studies can identify simple cause and effects. Stephen Carey illustrated the descriptive method that is used to answer "why things happen as they do in nature" in all areas of science - behavioral sciences, social sciences, physical sciences, etc. start with this simple underlying question. Carey explained how a connection between the deaths of women delivering babies at the Vienna General Hospital in the middle of the 19th Century was related to physicians' contact with corpses during autopsies. The physicians who assisted in deliveries came into contact at the maternity ward after performing autopsies more frequently than other areas of the hospital. A clue to the puzzle "why" occurred when a physician who had cut his finger during an autopsy developed the same symptoms as the women- called child bed fever, and also died. Semmelweis, another physician, realized that there was a connection - a cause and effect. (Carey 1997) But it is not evidence. Not much later a Dr. Crede, also an OBGYN, suspected that babies' eyes were becoming inflamed shortly after child birth, which caused blindness, because of something irritating the eye during child birth. Dr. Crede tried several methods to prevent this without success when he tried an eye prophylaxis of a newborns eyes. The procedure involved three steps - rinsing the eyes with fresh water, applying a drop of a 2% solution of silver-nitrate in each eye, and then cooling the eyes with cold towels. Remarkably he achieved over a 99% reduction in babies who developed inflammation. In fact the only baby to develop inflammation was because prophylaxis had not been performed due to complications during the birth.(Harman 2008) Although this explained that there was a connection between the mother and child during birth (a cause and effect) it was not the type of evidence, as in the maternity floor, real evidence, as to what was the actual cause. According to Parens and Chapman, during most of the 20th Century, studies on behavior were almost entirely descriptive. They wrote; "Understanding the complexity of behavior from molecular detail to organismal integration was considered a daunting, virtually intractable challenge." (Parens et al 2006, p 2) It was not until rapid changes in neuro science that evidence became available to explain how the nervous system expresses behaviors. An interesting point is the comment by Hammer regarding scientific research in the field of human behavioral and psychiatric genetics about experiments. "The statisticians who are supposed to be guiding and evaluating the research are unable to agree on how to design experiments or to interpret the results; their advise has proven as faddish (and useful) as the Hula-Hoop". (Parens et al 2006, p 70). The key deficiency in many of the candidate gene findings and experiments was a lack of replicability. So Hammer makes one of the most important points of formal experiments is that they must be repeatable. A formal experiment tests what has been explained and must be repeatable. (Carey 1997) Carey identifies the three steps in the experimental method: 1) One looks for a consequence as a result of an explanatory or descriptive story that can be arranged 2) The circumstances are arranged so that the expected event, if correct should occur, and 3) one has to be able to wait to observe if the predicted consequence occurs. A more formal experiment will also impose some controls.Controls should introduce variation into the results. Greek and Greek in their book suggest that the methods that relied on animal funded research, which is in the billions, are actually not reliable and explains that there are better ways to conduct more reliable research and experimentation. They have pointed to the gnome which made advances in research regarding the gene is being replaced with the Human Proteome Project or proteomics. It was estimated that the human body consisted of 100,000 genes, but this estimate has been determined to be triple the actual number of human genes which numbers around 30,000. The high estimate was due to the large variation of traits and so forth, but research has revealed that the enormous complexity is due to the arrangements of polypeptides (proteins). It is hoped that when all the proteomes are mapped it will be as revolutionary as the mapping of the gnome and that it will provide improvements in prevention and human research. The goal is that this information will lead to improved prevention and thus will reduce the need to depend on unreliable animal experimentation.(Greek & Greek 2004, pp 47-50)
Carey, Stephen S., "A Beginner's Guide to Scientific Method" (Paperback) 2011, 1st Edition 1997, Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN: 9780534584504
Da Vinci, Leonardo (Art) and Suh, Anna, H. (Comments/Editor) "Leonardo's Notebooks" [Hardback], 2005, Black Dog & Leventhal Publisher, ISBN: 1-57912-457-7.
Geek, Jean Swingle, and Geek, C. Ray, "What Will We Do If We Don't Experiment On Animals?" (Paperback), 2004, Trafford Publishing, ISBN: 1-4120-2058-1.
Hammer, D., "Genetics: Rethinking Behavior Genetics", 2002, Science 298 (5591): 71-72
Harman, Nathaniel Bishop, "Preventable Blindness" (Paperback), 2008, BiblioBazaar LLC, ISBN: 9780559828218.
Here is your third answer regarding pain. Please note in the previous answer that da Vinci was spelled incorrectly (it was spelled Davinci) by mistake - please correct it) I am working on your final answer. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. Thank you, Tim.
The concept of pain is an electro-chemical process that sends a signal to your brain to alert your consciousness or subconsciousness that an abnormal amount of stimulus requires your attention! (Morris 1993,) Aristotle, without the benefit of science labeled pain as an emotion. (Morris 1993, p 155) XXXXX XXXXX explains pain with the underlying assumption that a part of the human body is injured. At the site of harm chemicals then are released by tissue that has been harmed which lead to a series of triggered events within the human body. This functions to amplify the pain over other sensory stimuli. The specific chemical amplifiers identified for triggering the nervous system to respond are called prostaglandins and bradykinin. (Morris 1993, p 155) Bradykinnin, when Morris published his book, was the most natural powerful pain producing substance that had been discovered by research. The amplified impulses from these chemicals race along A delta or C fibers toward the spinal column. According to Morris research has not been able to explain fully what happens when the impulses reach the dorsal horn and elsewhere in the spinal chord. One thing that is known for certain is that the spinal chord releases chemicals called neurotransmitters. The message then travels onward via these neurotransmitters. There are two pathways the neurotransmitters travel which distinguishes which type of pain is felt. The neospinothalamic tract is associated with sharp, localized pain such as when you step on a nail or a piece of glass. The paleospinothalamic tract is associated with less localized, dull or burning pain. A sunburn, for example would be related to this tract. But when a specific area is touched causing more damage to a specific location of the already harmed area the neospinothalamic tract is induced. The impulses on either tract reach the thalamus and then continue on to the cerebral cortex.And within the cortex of the brain the impulses eventually reach the limbic system which promotes an emotional response. To a certain degree, then, Aristotle was not too far off.
Cultural influences involve how we relate to pain and even describe it. How we respond to metaphorical pain - a broken heart, loss of a loved one, a setback in life, and so forth, versus our responses to physical pain, according to Morris have been cultural driven. Morris provided a detailed explanation of hysteria associated with women and links to witchcraft versus the modern women who has simply replaced words to describe fits and fainting spells, etc. with modern descriptions - chronic pain and numbness. (Morris 1993, p 124). Because of research leading to work with peptides in the brain Morris has suggested that emotional pain and physical pain both result from impulses that reach the brain, but in different ways. He suggests that the pain experienced is more similar than realized. He avoids the possibility, however, that like the two kinds of pain experienced- depending on the pathway it originates from in the spinal column and the amount and type of chemical released that acts as an amplifier, dull versus sharp, that the way emotional pain reaches our brain may also make it distinguishable from dull and sharp pain, especially if research reveals that unique peptides interact separately from the other classes of pain. What makes all three have a common ground is that an emotional response is evoked by stimulus to the limbic system. Whereas Morris has suggested that modern culture attempts to make distinctions between emotional and physical pain, even though both kinds impact our emotions other writers point out how pain is viewed as tool with which we shape our experience of life. (Coakley et al 2008, p 17) Our experiences are shaped by our "communication", "language", and "metaphors" and therefore the experience of pain takes on cultural attributes. (Coakley et al 2008, p 17) The experience of pain is regarded as a subjective discipline because it involves the experience of the person expressing it and their memories according to Marni Jackson when she reflected on her experience of being stung by a bee in the mouth while bike riding. (Jackson 2002, p 2) Coakley, et al, have described examples of cultural settings that influence our experience of pain. They pointed out that contemporary American culture considers pain to prevent one from "naturally" enjoying life (hence society's addiction to pain killers) whereas medieval Christian idea that pain is divinely ordained as a preparation for salvation. (Coakley et al 2008, p 18) My observation is that the contemporary Christian has shifted away from a Calvinistic view of pain and recognizes that pain experienced in the Christian walk is evidence that spiritual forces opposed to God's eternal plan have chastened you and are evidence of the spiritual attributes Jesus seeks in his followers, but cloud it in paranoia. (Just don't share the same pew with me on Sunday while you are under attack!) In Chinese culture they point out how communication that expresses a loss of commitment or trust leads to the pain felt by "losing face". (Coakley et al 2008, p 18). This type of pain in Chinese culture is so strongly felt that many business men commit suicide over this feeling of pain from losing face. This discussion, that different cultures have been linked to an understanding of pain as a shared group trait that has variations in different populations suggest that just as there are two separate paths that the two types of physical pain travel then cultural influences may influence the formation of multiple complex peptide interactions within the brain which will allow researchers to identify pain beyond just as dull or a sharp pain. This offers interesting areas to study and test as pain relates to behavior influenced by emotions.
Coakley, Sarah, and Kaufman-Shelemay, Kay, (Editors), " Pain and Its Transformations: The Interface of Biology and Culture" (Harvard Mind/Brain/Behavior Interdisciplinary) [Hardcover] 2008 Harvard University Press, ISBN: 9780674024564
Jackson, Marni, "Pain: The Fifth Vital Sign: The Science and Culture of Why We Hurt" [Hardcover], 2002, Crown Publishers (Trademark of Random House Inc.), ISBN: 0-609-60375-2.
XXXXX, XXXXX B., "The Culture of Pain", (paperback) 1993, 1st Edition 1991, University of California Press, ISBN: 0-520-08276-1.
Here is your fourth answer. Review the word counts. I suggest that you compare some of the information with the general information in your assigned reading or text or lectures. Be sure there is a similar thread of thought. I have tried to be thorough to give you a clear perspective concerning each question that you asked. Review spacing, etc.
Always familiarize yourself with the references. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answers. Thank you, Tim
Researchers still have not come to a conclusion to explain fully why the brain developed rapid eye movement, sleep paralysis, and lucid dreaming.(Rock 2004) Most of the work in this area has been descriptive and exploratory. Study of sleep patterns led to the identification of a 3rd state of the brain besides awake and asleep, which is the Rapid Eye Movement state or REM. Eugene Aserinsky pioneered the study of rapid eye movement during our sleep and referred to it as REM. (Rock 2004, p 5) Following Aserinsky, William Dement provided a definition for REM; "a highly active brain in a paralyzed body". (Deguzman 2010) The exciting discoveries made concerning sleep patterns and REM were published jointly by Aserinsky and his Professor, Nathaniel Kleitman. The findings prompted a group headed by Michel Jouvet in Lyon, France to study REM sleep. Jouvet studied REM in cats and conducted an interesting experiment. (Rock 2004, p 15) He identified the part of the cat's brain that controlled sleep paralysis- known as REM atonia, and deactivated it surgically. Jouvet's experiment led to a hypothesis and identified an important reason that sleep and REM are important. He observed that the cat's, when free to move, acted out their lucid dreams during rapid eye movement. The cats imitated their hunting skills. So Jouvet theorized that REM and lucid dreams allowed the cat to engage in "mental rehearsals" which increased its hunting skills and therefore its survival. (Rock 2004, p 15) Another experiment, however, explained why it is important to get enough sleep and REM. Cats that were deprived of sleep experienced changes in their behavior while awake. The cats were abnormally hungry, restless, and hyper-sexual. This would suggest that these two states of the brain, sleep and REM, are important in maintaining normal behavior. Further understanding of REM and this experiment also pointed out that lost REM has to be made up when it can rise to 50% from the normal 20 to 25% of sleep time spent in REM in adults.(McNamara 2004)J Allan Dobson, who observed Jouvet's experiments in France, recognized the portion of the brain that was involved in REM. He isolated the "pons" at the base of the brain stem. (Although dismissed by Jouvet, Dobson came back to the United States and conducted his research involving attaching electrical probes (that he developed for this purpose) to the pons at the base of the brain stem and monitor its electrical activity during sleep and REM. (Dobson 2011) His research led him to conclude that random energy signals from the pons reach the brains cortex during REM which results in the dream state. His research led to his activation-synthesis hypothesis. (Rock 2004, pp 17-40) (Dobson 2011)This suggest that researchers need to learn the cause of these random energy signals. Dobson's hypothesis suggests that if the random signals were intercepted (in the way intercepting impulses that create consciousness of pain and awareness of harm to a part of our body can block pain) or prevented, then either dreams would stop, or rapid eye movement would stop, or perhaps both would stop during sleep. Apparently, this part of sleep (REM), or the 3rd state of the brain uses as much energy as awake brain activity. (Rock 2004, p 19) The function of dreaming is still a subject of theoretical discussion for those in neuroscience who entertain it. Andreas Rock, perhaps because of the increased activity in the limbic system during REM which research has demonstrated, suggests that "emotionally-tagged memory has everything to do with our sense of self". (Rock 2004, p 188)
" Allan Hobson" (Article) - Downloaded from the Internet, January 18th, 2011http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allan_Hobson
Deguzman, Carl, "REM Sleep" [article] , 2010, for End Your Sleep Deprivation, Down loaded from the Internet, January 2011http://www.end-your-sleep-deprivation.com/rem-sleep.html
McNamara, Patrick, "An Evolutionary Psychology of Sleep and Dreams" [Hardcover] 2004, Praeger Publishing, ISBN: 0-275-97875-3 (Paperback).
Rock, Andrea, "The Mind at Night:The New Science of How and Why We Dream" 2004, [paperback, 2005] Basic Books (Perseus Books Group) ISBN: 0-7382-0755-1 (hardcover)
Here are some more, you have been a tremendous help!!
1) Differentiate fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval schedules of reinforcement.
2) Compare and contrast classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
3) Define cognition, examining simple, complex, and natural concepts.
4) Discuss the contributing factors to individual differences in intelligence.
5) Discuss early experiences and critical periods.
6 ) Differentiate Kubler-Ross' stages of death and dying.
The questions are for Psychology and need to be between 250 350 words APA style citing all references.
Yes , Wednesday would be fine thanks!!
Here is the answer to your first question. Please review your answers and leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated for each answer that you accept. thank you, Tim.
The well known Behaviorist, B.F. Skinner, conducted experiments involving rats and the "skinner box", and also published his theory of behavior based on innate feelings that promote responses to stimuli in the environment when associated with reinforcers when organisms operate within an environment.(Boeree 1998) These behaviors can be measured and predicted. Skinner referred to his theory of behavior as "Operant conditioning". (Skinner 1974) Fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval of schedules are terms that were developed from his experiments and observations. This paper explains what these terms mean and how they helped to produce a practical theory.
The first schedule Skinner identified involved the frequency that a stimuli is manipulated by a rat in order to associate the manipulative behavior with the reinforcer. Time is not a factor, unless the experimenter falls asleep! If the rat discovers that manipulating the stimuli, while it is operating within the box, is associated with that the reinforcer- a pellet of food is obtained, then it will repeat the behavior.(Boeree 1998) Skinner observed that the rat's behavior could be manipulated according to a "fixed ratio" or quantity. (Skinner 1974) For examples, 1 : 1 = one manipulation for one reinforcement, 3 : 1 = three manipulations for one reinforcement, and so forth. One could explore additional variables related to this observation such as leading to a hypothesis regarding the strength of a reinforcer or the strength of the feeling that prompts the rat to operate. But Skinner realized that a behavior could also be made extinct or extinguished by later simply withholding the reinforcer when the rat manipulated the stimuli. He labeled this "extinction". (Boeree 1998) (Skinner 1974)
Skinner introduced the variable of time as opposed to quantity. After discovering the stimuli and reinforcer while operating within the box, the rat then receives the reinforcer after specific periods of time. (Boeree 1998) Skinner utilized a timer- duration versus quantity. (Skinner 1974) The stimulus still has to be manipulated by the rat, but quantity or frequency has no bearing, except that the stimulus had to be manipulated at least once. What Skinner observed while conducting his "fixed interval" experiments could be characterized as anticipation or anxiousness. As it became closer to the time that the reinforcer would be provided the rats would increase the frequency with with which they depressed the stimuli. For example, after manipulating it once, if the duration is 20 seconds the rat will manipulate the stimuli with less frequency in the first 15 seconds than it will in the final 5 seconds. This suggest that with holding an expected or anticipated reinforcer can cause paranoid behavior. Do workers on the job in a factory pace them selves, then naturally work harder - become more productive as it comes closer to the lunch break or end of day "whistle"? Of course automated equipment and assembly lines are used to overcome this natural behavior or tendency to "pace" which Skinner observed.(Boeree 1998)
"Variable schedules" randomly change the variable regarding how many manipulations of the stimuli are required each time in order to receive the reinforcer. this is also referred to as the "variable ratio schedule".(Skinner 1974) For example, after the rat learns the association between a behavior and the reinforcer, the experimenter changes "X" to 3, 5, 1, 6, 4, and so forth regarding the quantity of times the stimuli has to be manipulated. (Boeree 1998) This led Skinner to describe two important observations about behavior due to operant conditioning. The rats smoothed out their behavior unlike the fixed interval rather than pacing then speeding up, etc. But it also became harder or longer for the extinction of the association in rats exposed to variable schedules. A "variable interval" is when the time frame is changed between receiving rewards. (Boeree 1998)
This research was criticized by persons like Gene Zimmer because of ethical considerations.(Zimmer 1999) At the time that Skinner's research was conducted Behaviorism was still in its infancy, but since he published his results it has prompted testing of many additional hypothesis, additional research- such as describing the physiological changes that occur in the brain and designing experiments to evaluate the impact of feelings on mind (just how hungry is a rat when it operates within the environment when the association between a stimuli and a reinforcer is made and how does that feeling influence the strength of the association). Scholars, such as Kennon Lattal and Michael Perone, are clarifying how to conduct respected and valid experiments that will lead to the variables that help us understand how and why. (Lattal and Perone 1998) Also the reinforcers themselves could alter the strength of associations and predicted behaviors- increase or weaken them. How does the mind establish a prejudice for one reinforcement versus another? Operant Conditioning and study of behavior offered promise in the 1970s that it could be used to solve societal problems.(Skinner 1974) One would hope that practical solutions to criminal behavior and even addictive behavior could be extinguished by applying the discoveries made. That the empirical studies and the Science of Psychology should lead to the isolation and understanding of variables- like those discussed in this paper that provide a greater understanding of human behavior, is an underlying assumption behind the approach of early researchers like Skinner and his successors.(Lattal and Perone 1998, p 4)
Boeree Dr., C. George, "B.F. SKINNER, 1904-1990", Article on Personality Theories, 1998 and 2006. Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011 http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Lattal, Kennon A. and Perone Michael, "Handbook of Research Methods in Human Operant Behavior (Applied Clinical Psychology)" [Hardcover] 1998, Plenum Press, NY, ISBN: 0-306-45668-0.
Skinner, B.F., "About Behaviorism", (Mass Market Paperback - 1976) Vintage Books, (1st Edition 1974), Alfred A Knopf Inc., ISBN: 0-394-71618-3
Zimmer, Gene, "B.F. Skinner: Behavioral Psychologist", (Web page Article 1999), Say No To Psychiatry (sntp.com), Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011http://www.sntp.net/behaviorism/skinner.htm
Thanks, XXXXX XXXXX you think the other answers will be available?
Here is the second answer. I should have all the answers posted by Wednesday evening around 6pm. Please review the word counts so that you have what you need. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept the answer.
The important difference when considering classical conditioning versus operant conditioning is the type of response involved. Two important researchers and their experiments involving Behavior and the field of Psychology as a science are also connected with the identification of the two types of behavioral conditioning. (Lattal & Perone 1998, p 5) (Hearst 1975) Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs identified how reflexive responses can be manipulated by altering the pattern of reinforcers. (Lattal & Perone 1998 p 5) (Skinner 1937) Later, Skinner's experiments with pigeons and rats identified how voluntary responses to stimuli linked to how an organism freely operates within its environment can also be manipulated by altering the pattern of reinforcement.(Skinner 1974) Many persons in the field of behavior also believe that feelings are at the source of behavior. Their research suggest that there are two types of feelings distinguished or divided by needs and desires. Ivan Pavlov in his facility he updated by a contribution by a Mr. Nobel, which was given by Mr. Nobel to induce Pavlov to conduct research into the digestive system as Mr. Nobel (he invented dynamite and was wealthy) had health problems associated with his digestive tract. So Pavlov conducted research for several reasons according to Daniel Todes, chief of these being that dogs digestive system resembled that of humans. The second reason was that Pavlov's dogs could remain reasonably calm, unlike other experimental animals which were nervous, and calm was needed for physiological experiments that Pavlov conducted. (Todes 2000, p 51). Pavlov's dogs did not produce the same type and quantity of digestive fluid, even when it ate the same amounts (by weight) of different types of foods. Pavlov attributed this to appetite and mood. According to Todes one of Pavlov's strengths as a scientist and researcher was his ability to discern patterns. (Todes 2000, p 56) One particular experiment Pavlov conducted involved two dogs- Druzhok and Sultan. In his study Todes described how Pavlov considered variables that influenced the results. His studies led to the type of conditioning known as "classical". Pavlov viewed the physiology of the dog as a factory (the computer did not exist) so scientists tend to ascribe metaphors that make sense to them in their time and space. For example, when mechanical clocks had been invented the clock was used as a metaphor for the mind! (Todes 2000, p 61). Pavlov identified these responses as reflexive responses to stimuli. Activities within the body which can be influenced by different kinds of variables impact its response. Many persons focus on the study of external stimulus that produces a reflexive response such as salivating when a bell rings just before it is time to eat. Of course a dog would not know what kind of food it would be provided. Pavlov detected that some reflexive responses are impacted by external stimuli and others react to the specific stimuli- the body has a way of distinguishing between meat, bread, and milk and can adjust its own response. So some reflexive responses, like salivating, can be influenced by external stimuli, whereas other reflexive physiological responses were based on how the factory (today Pavlov would have said based on how it is programmed to respond using the computer as his metaphor) is set up to operate. (Todes 2000, p 61) He died in 1936.
B. F. Skinner had the advantage over Pavlov of much water having passed under the bridge as he produced his papers and books in the 1960s and 1970s. But as a psychologist studying human behavior, rather than a physiologist, Skinner set up different types of experiments and did not perform surgery on animals. Skinner in his own book makes the point that language and metaphors in the field had advanced and there were more facts available when constructing hypothesis to test and therefore some criticism of Pavlov's methods and conclusions have to be considered based on the time they were conducted. (Skinner 1974) Today's psychologist studying human behavior have an additional 40 years to stack against Skinner's conclusions. But skinner added to the idea of the experiment and isolating variables.(Kennon & Perone 2000). Skinner's research distinguished voluntary responses from reflexive responses. The term operant in his "operant conditioning" implies that an organism operates within in its environment utilizing innate development, but makes choices in how it responds to a stimuli- acts on a sensory item. Pavlov's dogs did not seek out a stimuli that prompted the bell to ring they reflexively responded to it because the reinforcer was provided after the bell rang. In Skinner's box, then, the rats made their version of a bell ring by pushing on the lever once they associated their behavior in their environment with the reinforcer- a pellet of food. Skinner examined variables that influence the mind's behavior and produced the hypothesis that behavior can be predicted when the environment is controlled. (Boeree 1998) (Lattal & Perone 1998) (Skinner 1974).
In summary, for both Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning the purpose is to increase the probability of a response. The response or conditioned response involves a neutral stimuli in classical conditioning, but in operant conditioning the stimuli can be acted on or manipulated by the organism which is also the response one wants to produce. In classical conditioning the neutral stimuli is paired with the reinforcer- which means it follows the neutral stimuli. The response produced is reflexive and occurs between the neutral stimuli and the reinforcer. This should result in the predicted response. In operant conditioning, however, the reinforcer is not paired, it is only provided after the response (behavior involving the stimuli is operated on, bumped against, pecked at, etc. depending on how the organism operates in its environment) is produced involving the discriminatory stimuli- a conditioned behavior is produced. If one suspects a physiological behavior a reflexive experiment can be set up involving stimuli, but if the behavior is psychological one can design an operative experiment involving stimuli.
Todes, Daniel, "Ivan Pavlov: Exploring the Animal Machine (Oxford Portraits in Science)", [Hardcover], 2000, Oxford University Press, ISBN: 0-19-510514-1.
Here is the answer to the third question. On the surface this seems like a simple question which should have a simple answer, but cognitive discussion involve language.
so I provided a history to explain the definition of cognition relative to the modern fields of cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Carefully read the last two paragraphs so that you understand simple, complex, and natural (innate) concepts that the mind/brain utilizes. Review the references - especially Goldstein - his summary of the history of the cognitive psychology field is excellent and his recognition of "mental representations" and he is easy to read. But the article by Nat is the most relevant - cutting edge. I explained what he means by "natural concepts" and offered some discussion of the "triunal brain" with the popular term reptilian brain. Once you follow the thread of the answer and have reviewed the references then you can shorten the answer to make it more concise. The most important idea is how simple concepts and complex concepts are not distinct - complex concepts make use of multiple simple concepts to result in new simple concepts. And I explained how the mind can overcome the magic number dilemma which should impede comprehension except that our brain organizes like an index card box! Good luck condensing my answer. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept the answer. Tim.
The American Heritage Dictionary (2010) defines cognition as the mental process of knowing including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning and judgment. The study of cognition as a discipline emerged from the Science of Psychology- "studying the mind".(Goldstein 2011) Goldstein traced the historical roots which led to the field of Cognitive Psychology. Beginning with "structuralism", which is identified with experiments conducted by Franciscus Donder in 1868 to measure reaction time (Goldstein 2011, p 6), Goldstein pointed out that Donder's experiment was important because it provided the principle that "mental processes cannot be measured directly, but must be inferred from behavior". Structuralism received its formal name from the work of Wilhelm Wundt who founded the first laboratory of psychological science in 1879. Structuralism an individual's experience is made up of basic elements of experience. The basic elements are called "sensations".(Goldstein 2011, p 8) Structuralist relied on the process of "analytic introspection" to identify these elements. One of Wundt's goals, which he did not accomplish, was to create a table of elements that make up the mind in much the same way a table of elements provides the building blocks of the physical world. (Goldstein 2011, p 9) The next step leading to Cognitive Psychology was actually a shift away from study of the mind and mental processes because the process of analytic introspection was not respected as a proper scientific method by researchers in the first half of the 20th century. (Goldstein 2011, p 9)In 1913, a Graduate student at the University of Chicago published his new approach to studying Psychology. XXXXX XXXXX referred to this new approach as "Behaviorism" (Goldstein 2011, p 10) Two important researchers in the Behaviorism field of Psychology prepared the way to return to modern Cognitive Psychology. In 1938 XXXXX XXXXXce Tolman was conducting experiments with rats regarding behavior when he described the "cognitive map". (Tolman 1948) Goldstein pointed out that a cognitive map is a "conception" of the environment the rat operates in.(Goldstein 2011, p 11) B.F. Skinner who is well known for the concept of "operant conditioning" to explain behavior and his 1974 book, "About Behaviorism" contributed to restoring interest in Cognitive Psychology , according to Goldstein, because of his earlier publication in 1957, "Verbal Behavior". Skinner in his earlier book had theorized that operant conditioning explains how children learn language. A linguist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Noam Chomsky, two years later in 1959 questioned Skinner's hypothesis. Chomsky pointed out that operant conditioning failed to explain speech which is negatively rewarded and that children also use incorrect grammar which is never rewarded with a reinforcer.(Goldstein 2011, p 11) Goldstein wrote;
"Instead, they (Psychologists) began to realize that to understand complex cognitive behaviors, it is necessary not only to measure observable behavior, but also to consider what this behavior tells us about how the mind works."(Goldstein 2011, p 12)
Besides Chomsky's criticism other events took place to lead to a resurgence in the field. The advent of the digital computer (1954 IBM) and how information is broken down into stages, also set the stage for the use of flow diagrams to map the mind as well as computers. The "information-processing" approach opened up a variety of new ways to conduct research and understand the mind.(Goldstein 2011, p 13) Several conferences held in 1956 to discuss these new technologies and how they can be modeled after the mind are considered to be the re-birth of Cognitive Psychology. One paper in particular, presented by XXXXX XXXXX from Harvard at one of the conferences, "The Magical Number 7 Plus or Minus 2" (1956), emphasized the importance in understanding how information is processed. [it is the basis for our 7 digit telephone numbers] Goldstein points out that these historical conferences held at Dartmouth and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology were not formally recognized as the modern advent of cognitive psychology, however, until 1967 when Ulrich Neisser published his textbook titled "Cognitive Psychology" Neisser's text book was the first text to utilize the term "Cognitive Psychology" in conjunction with the information processing approach to the reestablished discipline. Goldstein pointed out that in a sense it is the grandfather of his text, "Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience".(Goldstein 2011, p 14)
According to Goldstein the field of Cognitive Psychology utilizes two definitions of cognition. One definition allows the field to identify different types of cognition (related to Wundt's elements of experience) and the second definition indicates how the mind operates (which shares elements of Skinner's operant conditioning) with these different types of cognition.(Goldstein 2011, p 5)
Definition 1) the mind creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, emotions, language, deciding, thinking, and reasoning.
Definition 2) the mind is a system that creates representations of the world so that we can act within it to achieve our goals. (very similar to Tolman's "cognitive map" representing a basic "conception")
The idea of the "mind creating representations" is important throughout Goldstein's text.David Myers in his text book, "Psychology" described cognition in the plural;
"...our cognitions - our perceptions, memories and interpretations linked to emotions."(Myer 2003, p 501)
Representations and interpretations are synonymous, but are at the core of modern of Modern Psychology. Researchers attempt to study and present theories and hypothesis to test to explain how the mind creates representations and interpretations of its environment.
Arnold vander Nat has pointed out that the connected field of Cognitive Science has identified how and where the brain interacts to create the mind - "conceptual representations". (Nat 2009) A simple concept or representation according to Nat are brought about by the "activation of a single conceptual node", whereas more complex concepts involve a sequence of "extem-poraneously linked conceptual nodes". (Nat 2009, Par. 1) Nate described the brains conceptual nodes as relay-points in a network that is interconnected and organizes information. One can image an index box with recipes and cooking pointers kept on cards. We may arrange a filing system, but our most frequently used recipes and cooking tips will be kept at the front, the less frequently used information is organized in a system for future retrieval. The card represents a simple concept - a word or image. Chocolate chip cookies are stored as a simple concept as a single card or a single node. On the card may be the details that combine a few or many other simple concepts. Combining a variety of words or images can be sued to understand the simple concept (make it more complex) or to create another simple concept (make it less complex) The interplay of nodes helps us understand complex concepts can establish new simple concepts. Imagine Pythagorean's theorem or the quadratic equation once it is learned. A node can stores each as a simple concept. But to apply it to the environment or to solve a problem with it the mind makes connections with the variety of simple concepts associated with the selected concept. For example - variable is stored as a simple concept, a, b, and c are stored as simple concepts, etc. By combining a variety of linked simple concepts complex concepts can be understood resulting in a new simple concept - another index card with its variety of affiliations to other nodes. Here XXXXX XXXXX's "magic number" is important. Each index card may have a maximum number of associations - between 7 to 9. In order to overcome this limiting principle our brain and our mind can combine multiple cards which will have different and maybe some shared associations. The concept of a natural concept proposes the question as to whether or not there are natural or inherited concepts the mind forms automatically without acting or operating within the environment. Introspective study, according to Nat, have not identified or revealed any natural concepts within the mind or nodes of the brain.(Nat 2009 par ) "Natural" implies that a concept has not been acquired from stimuli or from our experiences acquired within our environment, instead it occurs innately or due to our genetics. The theory that we have a "Triune brain" proposed by Dr. Paul McClean in 1967 suggested that there is a natural component to the mind. The R-complex nicknamed the "Reptilian Brain" proposed by Dr. McClean is blamed for influencing a child's early responses to stimuli, but how the mind or brain is pre-loaded at birth (naturally) to produce such primitive behavior seems distinct from the formation of concepts. (Healy 1987, p 11) The maturation theories have proposed that as our consciousness (when we have formed enough active nodes and simple concepts) that the higher brain remains in control and the Reptilian brain becomes less active as it is in an infant until the infant is secure and feels safe in its environment. This suggest that organisms that are always engaged in survival activities have limited capacity to develop higher order minds and thinking. The strength and the ability of the brain and mind to process stimuli, identify simple concepts, and to have multiple interaction between nodes may be similar to how brain cells function in two key ways; 1) use it or lose it and 2) use it to keep it strong.
American Heritage Dictionary, 2010, Houghton Mifflin, Downloaded from the Internet January, 2011.http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/cognition
Goldstein, E. Bruce, "Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience with Coglab Manual [Hardcover], 2011, 1st Edition 2008, Wadsworth, ISBN 13: 978-0-8400-3355-0, 10: 0-8400-3355-9.
Healy, Jane, "Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence" [Paperback] 1987, Broadway Books, ISBN: 0-7679-1615-8. Myers, David G., "Psychology", (Hardcover) 2003, 1st Edition 1986, page 501,Worth Publishers, ISBN: 0-7167-5251-4.
Nat, Arnold Vander (Associate Professor of Philosoph , Loyola University of Chicago), "NEURONS, CONCEPTS, AND CONNECTIONS IN THINKING: Neo-TraditionalView of Concepts and Meaning", (Article 2000), revised 2009. Downloaded from the Internet: January 2011http://orion.it.luc.edu/~avande1/connections/
Here is your forth answer. Two issues are evident - the debate over defining intelligence and what is being tested by IQ Tests which experts recognize SATs are in disguise is the first issue relevant to the question, and the second debate is the discussion over nature versus nurture, but it is not necessary to solve it to evaluate environmental and genetic influences. The early years of brain development are critical and deprivation of stimuli in the environment can impair brain function - keeping it locked into the R-complex (Reptilian) brain, whereas by manipulating the stimuli introduced in the environment properly parents and teachers can foster higher intelligence scores. Studies of twins were identified and the need to expand to include RQ with IQ was discussed also. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is also appreciated when you accept your answer. Thank you, Tim.
Perhaps defining intelligence is more difficult than influencing it. Kendra Cherry pointed out in her article that there is no standard definition of what constitutes intelligence.(Cherry 2011) Perhaps if we are going to influence something we need to determine just what it is we are influencing. The discussion over intelligence appears to surround whether it is a single ability or a combination. And before a consensus by the field of Psychology has settled on a practical definition for its application and for further research, psychologist have proposed various ways for measuring this flight-y concept and the chief criticism of intelligence testing is its failure to measure rational quotients or RQ. Keith Stanovich in his textbook has pointed out that he agrees with Robert Sternberg (2003) that cognitive ability should not be equated with intellectual skills. (Stanovich 2009, p 45) Stanovich has concluded that broad theorist have inflated the concept of intelligence so that it implies much more than the "IQ" tests can measure. (p 45) This paper, however, only identifies factors and influences researchers have discovered that effect the development of intelligence as measured on the most prominent IQ tests such as the SATs.(One can select Achievement, Aptitude or Assessment to represent the "A" in SAT.) Typically, IQ tests are not designed to measure if a person can think rationally (RQ), such as forming realistic goals and taking appropriate actions available within their environment to obtain their goals. (Stanovich 2009, p 3) The well established SATs are designed to compare an individual's score to a baseline or standard. The elements measured include some of these examples: the ability to concentrate on an immediate goal in spite of distractions, how well a person can hold beliefs in their short-term memory and manipulate those beliefs, and how efficiently a person can process information that is provided. (Stanovich 2009 p 3). "Given that IQ tests measure only a small set of thinking abilities that people need, it is amazing that they have acquired the power that they have", Stanovich remarked.(p 4)
The most prominent debate over what influences a person's measure of Intelligence is whether Nature or Nurture has the greatest effect.(Healy 1987, p 8) (Cherry 2011) The debate has prompted research involving twins to determine if genetics or environment plays a greater roll. Cherry points out that identical twins have IQs that have closer scores than do fraternal twins. Another study revealed that siblings reared in the same home have closer IQ scores than non biological siblings reared in the same home. Both studies suggested that genetics plays an important role in influencing intelligence. (Cherry 2011) But other studies showed that environmental factors were important also. Twins raised in the same households had IQ scores that were closer than the IQ scores of twins raised in the same house. Another factor examined was school attendance. When one Twins had significantly greater attendance at school than another twin the twin with greater attendance tended to have higher IQ scores. This suggest that multiple variables within the environment can be examined, such as health that can influence IQ scores, whereas nature is relegated to choices couples make regarding copulating and perhaps their diet (environmental) and life style (environmental) prior to and during the pregnancy. Healy identified another genetic factor - your personality can influence how you learn and process information. She referred to the "Introvert vs Extrovert" personality trait that can influence IQ scores. But the physical aspect of the brain that influences our mind and cognition are also genetic. She refers to a "time table" each child has for brain development. She points out that even the "pace" with which one explores their environment and therefore impacts the rate at which the brain creates new simple concepts is influenced by natural factors. (Healy 1987, pp 8-9) Healy also identified certain "clusters of abilities" as well as learning deficiencies that are genetically influenced. In this debate Healy pointed out that sensory deprivation is perhaps the strongest negative influence on learning and can cause the brain's functions to permanently be impaired. Because human beings require more socialization than other mammals, which rely more on instinctive traits for survival, a child whose cognitive capacity does not develop properly could be locked into their R-complex or Reptilian brain, which in many respects functions lower than other mammals because it is designed to be replaced by the higher functioning cerebral cortex for survival after infancy. (Healy 1987 p 12) (MacLean, 1990) The impact of physical activity and movement, including developing motor skills can be more important than intellectual stimulation in helping the brain develop healthy pathways that promote increased intelligence - exploration and play time are important in influencing intelligence also. Research is revealing that both genetics and a child's environment influence cognition and intelligence and the development of the physical brain. But environmental factors, especially in the early years of an infants life have the greatest impact on intelligence and are the influences that can be most easily controlled by parents and educators. Some medical conditions that are genetic can be identified shortly after birth, and some, if addressed very early have no negative impact on a child's mind. Psychology needs to assure that the minds capacity for rational behavior within a given environment is also emphasized when studying and testing cognition and intelligence. This will provides new opportunities for researchers to impact this field of science.
Cherry, Kendra, "Theories of Intelligence" (Article 2011) Psychology, About.com. Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011.http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/intelligence.htm
Cherry, Kendra, "What Factors Determine Intelligence?" (Article 2011) Psychology, About.com. Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011.
Gardner, H., "Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences", 1983, New York: Basic Books
Healy, Jane, "Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence" [Paperback] 1987, Broadway Books, ISBN: 0-7679-1615-8.
Stanovich, Keith E., "What Intelligence Tests Miss: The Psychology of Rational Thought" [Paperback] 2009, Yale University Press, ISBN: 978-0-300-12385-2.
Here is your answer for your 5th question. Be sure to review the information and condense as you need to. It would be interesting to learn what type of environment, stimuli, and experiences the wonderful 9 year old singer, Jackie Evancho, was exposed to by her parents! Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. Tim.
The first person of note to recognize the critical period, a child's first three years, was Dr. Maria Montessori (1870-1952). Schools which utilize her unique methods continue to operate in the 21st century. Dr. Montessori observed that children build themselves from what they find in their environment.(Montessori 2011). She prompted the phrase; "a child's mind is a sponge" by her observation that children have an almost effortless ability to absorb knowledge. She also noticed that infants have a "tireless interest" in manipulating materials. She developed an environment at her schools that utilized specially designed stimuli that children can learn from unassisted by adults. Later researchers have confirmed that children's minds act like a sponge in response to stimuli in the critical three years, but refined their knowledge of the type of experiences and sequences.(Lovenelli 2011).
Lovenelli pointed out that "following birth there is a period of rapid brain reorganization. This is a critical period of brain development because if children are deprived of certain stimuli their cognitive development can be impaired. The first important stimuli involves bonding. (Lovenelli 2011) (Healy 1987) (Baily 2001) (Schaffer 1998) Observations of children who had been neglected at birth- were not held, were not held, and did not make eye contact have trouble forming and trusting relationships. The development of language skills are influenced critically in this period also. A rich environment of stimulating talking, reading, and singing foster verbal skills and infants deprived of an enriched environment will have trouble using language later to express their feelings and so forth. It is not easy to determine whether an enhanced, well developed skill or a stunted skill are the product of genetics or experience. Healy points out the following; "There is such a constant interaction between basic capacity and experience from the moment of a baby's conception that the question is impossible-and really unnecessary--to answer." (Healy 1987, p 8). Research since Healy involving how neurons begin forming patterns of interaction indicate the importance of experience in influencing the development of simple concepts which become the building blocks of learning later. These experiences are important because they serve as the initial inputs because researchers have not identified any natural concepts that we are born preprogrammed into our neurons.(Schaffer 1998) Research is revealing that the development of motor skills and eye and hand coordination promote areas of brain development which are only receptive in early years.
There is much information being produced on stimuli, experience, and abilities. Parents, unfortunately, have a short window in which to make important decisions about which stimuli and what type of environment to provide. The critical period and the importance of experience on cognitive development and the ability to build on the simple concepts suggests that couples be encouraged to develop a plan of parent hood for their children during the first three years in advance.
XXXXX, XXXXX, B., (Editor) "Critical Thinking About Critical Periods" [Paperback] 2001,Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc. ISBN: 1-55766-495-1
Lovinelli RN, BSN, IBCLC, Beth M., "Understanding Critical Development Periods for Babies", (Ask an Expert Article) , babyzone.com/, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011.http://www.babyzone.com/askanexpert/critical-periods-development
Montessori Dr., Maria, (1870-1952) Brief Biography Article, American Montessori Society, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011http://www.amshq.org/montessori.htm
Schaffer, Rudolph H., "Making Decisions about Children: Psychological Questions and Answers (Understanding Children's Worlds)" [Paperback] 1998, 1st edition 1990, blackwell Publishers Ltd, ISBN: 0-631-20259-5 (pbk.)
Here is the answer to the sixth question. The person who identified these five stages worked with thousands of dying persons and pointed out that the stages do not relate to death it is because persons aren't sure what they are going to experience - have a limited frame of reference (frame of experience!). Because of her experience she did not believe that death exist! Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your last answer.
Dr. Kubler-Ross is respected for her work regarding bereavement. She identified five stages that dying persons goes through as well as close family member, a spouse or child, who goes on. The stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.(Five Stages of Grief, 2011) Her stages of grief are useful for other types of emotional loss which has been utilized by counselors and others who work with someone who has experienced a other types of loss - divorce, loss of a job or career, and loss of a home are some examples of types of loss that also involve denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
The stages of grief also represent a 'change cycle' which has made the model for dealing with a variety of trauma. The stages Kubler-Ross identified follow the mental or cognitive process the mind experiences which trauma. One might want to compare it with the physical changes of shock and its impact on the mind. When she sits with someone who is dying Kubler-Ross points out how they teach you about the stages. Some interesting observations she makes. Acceptance is reached when there is someone there who cares at the end of the persons life. But in her book, "On Life After Death", Kubler-Ross points out that the five stages is not typical of dying and really has nothing to do with dying.(Kubler-Ross 2008, p 21). The five stages are responses to our own emotions or feelings. After interviewing so many persons who were dying and/or had near death experiences Dr. Kubler-Ross did not believe there was real death. Instead, she believed it was a transformation. (Kubler-Ross 2008, p 17 & p 26) Whether or not her stories can be validated she came to this conclusion that death isn't the end, rather it is a shedding, because of persons who saw siblings they were unaware during near death experiences and only verified it was a brother or sister or other relative they had known when they would share their story with a parent or close relative. Many times when a first child is lost parents do not share this information with subsequent children. Also during the events labeled as near death experiences the unknown relative may appear older even though they died when they were small - a child!
Because most of us have limited experiences with the dying and death- we are not present when someone is dying, except rarely, and this limited experience with death hinders our minds awareness of this aspect of reality in much the same way that an infant deprived of stimuli and experiences is unable to create enough simple concepts and has trouble interacting within the environment and with relationships through out life.
References: Kubler-XXXXX, XXXXX, "Elisabeth Kübler-Ross - Five Stages of Grief", article, businessballs.com Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011. http://www.businessballs.com/elisabeth_kubler_ross_five_stages_of_grief.htm
Kubler-XXXXX, XXXXX, (author), Myss, Caroline, (forward), "On Life after Death", Revised 2008[Paperback]1st Edition 1991, Celestial Arts, ISBN: 978-1-58761-318-0.
thanks for all your help, I have a few more questions also!!
1) Examine gender identity and gender roles, as well as gender similarities and gender differences.
2) Discuss the three theories of emotions.
3) Discuss the factors that influence reactions to stress.
4) Differentiate anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders.
5) Summarize the process of person perception.
6) Discuss the role of groups and social influence.
answers must be APA format ans cite all references 250 -350 words.
Will you be able to help me with these questions?
Here is the first answer. I am working on the other 5 answers also. I focused on awareness of gender as opposed to gender specific behavior as a way of distinguishing - one is external (within yourself) and the other is external (how others see your behavior compared to the behavior of others of the same or opposite sex) they can both be present at the same time, but are very different - what we feel and think we are versus what someone else observing our behavior believes our gender to be! Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept the answer.
Gender identity is a function of the stimuli and the environment an infant experiences in their first three years. By two and a half years of age a child can identify themselves as either male or female. Owen-Blakemore et al 2009, p 5) Identity awareness is separate from male behavior (Brizendine M.D. 2010) and female behavior (Brizendine M.D. 2006) which is influenced by both environmental and biological factors. Dr. Brizendine identifies the role hormones play as male and females mature. Biological factors, however work in tandem from inception according to Dr. Brizendine because the male and female cells are immediately differentiated because a male cell has a y chromosome.(Brizendine M.D. 2010 p 2) Gender identify and gender roles implies one has self awareness of their gender as opposed to someone observing male or female specific behavior."Gender is a fundamental way in which social life of human beings is organized." (Owen-Blackmore et al 2009 p1). This quote underlies the organization that is provided by parents and other caregivers during the first three years. Boys and girls are organized by the name they are given at birth - boys names versus girls names. Being a boy named "Sue" as the song implied makes for a rough life. Children learn to identify which gender by the way their parents and others who interact with them talk to them. Verbal skills are influenced the most during the first three years. (Healy, 1987) Research on hearing which is similar to research on color indicates that male and female brains respond differently to different noises. (Brizendine M.D. 2010) Another environmental influence is the color of clothing. Research on exposing the brain's neurons to color is leading to cutting edge therapies to stimulate brain activity or to quiet brain activity that is associated with certain cognitive deficiencies, which may be an alternative to electrical stimulation, oxygenation, and other chemical attempts to prompt neurons activities or behavior. (Han & Boyden 2007) The cover of the book, Gender Development (2009), which is pink, makes the point of color being programmed into the brain's activity while the brain is susceptible to stimuli and simple concepts. There are other influences that prompt awareness in a child from hair styles, clothing style choices (besides color) and some cultures have specific activities for male and female toddlers. In some cultures males and females are separated and interaction with the same gender and not the other gender almost promotes self awareness. (Owen-Blackmore et al 2009)Gender identity addresses theories that explain how persons learn to identify themselves as male or female, which is distinct from masculine or feminine behavior. Self awareness of being separate and what one is occurs in the first three years. Although a boy or girl child will play with a doll how they differentiate it is an aspect of their awareness of environmental influences of what is male and female. One person observed that a male will interact with the doll differently than a female.(Owen-Blackmore et al 2009) But that is not identity awareness - that is a behavior. If the doll is neutral - cannot be identified as male or female, and there are blue boy clothes and pink girl clothes and a manipulator said to the child, "the doll's name is XXXXX XXXXX you get his clothes for him?" Whether the child is male or female if they have developed gender identity both will select the blue male styled clothing. And the opposite would happen if the doll was given a girl's name like Sandy. Identity has to do with cognitive abilities related to distinguishing gender as opposed to engaging in gender specific behavior, although genetics plays a key role in influencing behavior it plays a lesser roll in gender identity which is primarily a function of environmental stimuli.
Brizendine M.D., Louann, "The Female Brain", 2006, Morgan Road Books, ISBN: 978-0-7679-2009-1. Brizendine M.D., Louann, "The Male Brain: The Science Behind How Men think", 2010, Broadway Books, ISBN: 978-0-7679-2753-6.Healy, Jane, "Your Child's Growing Mind: Brain Development and Learning From Birth to Adolescence" [Paperback] 1987, Broadway Books, ISBN: 0-7679-1615-8Sanlo, Ronni L. (Editor), "Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation: Research, Policy, and Personal Perspectives: New Directions for Student Services" (J-B SS Single Issue Student Services, No. 111) [Paperback ]2005, Purple Books Publishing, ISBN: 978-0-7879-8328-4. Owen-Blakemore, Judith E., Berenbaum Sheri A., & Liben, Lynn S., "Gender Development", [Hardcover] 2009, Psychology Press, ISBN: 978-0-8058-4170-1.Han, Xue and Boyden, Edward S., Multiple-Color Optical Activation, Silencing, and Desynchronization of Neural Activity, with Single-Spike Temporal Resolution [Published Paper], March 2007, Research performed at Stanford University School of Medicine & Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab. Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011. http://edboyden.org/07.03.han.pdf
Here is your second answer. Emotion is connected to motivation. I didn't use this example, but physiological knowledge of the brain may allow the brain to be altered to prevent recognition of fear (soldiers in combat, rescue workers, exploring dangerous environments, etc. ) or to enhance fear (discourage criminal urges or self destructive behavior). I focused on providing a basic explanation with some interesting information associated, possibly, with each theory. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. I am trying to have all four remaining questions answered Wednesday evening.
An emotion begins in milli seconds. (Ekman Ph.D. 2007, p 19) Our action and reaction to a single emotion which begins in less than a second can alter our life forever - negatively or positively. Understanding the four types of emotions is the goal of the three main theories of emotions since they can be so pivotal in our lives. There are two useful definitions of what an emotion is that researchers pay attention to. (EruptingMind 2011) The physiological definition is that an emotion is a disruption in the homeostatic baselines- changes in heart rate, pulse, & blood pressure occur. The psychological definition is concerned with our mind's perception which is related to our cognition. A stimulus we become aware of prompts us to feel agitation or serenity. The four types of emotion arise from the psychological definition; 1) pleasant agitation, 2) unpleasant agitation (aggravation) 3) serenity (pleasant) 4) serenity (unpleasant) For one person a serene environment, such as a quiet library, may be peaceful and allow mental concentration whereas another person may experience the same serenity as "quiet as a tomb" and makes them feel uncomfortable because it is too quiet. The psychological dimension,then, is also concerned with the "hedonistic" tone. (EruptingMind 2011) Does the emotion or feeling get perceived as pleasurable or unpleasurable. The definitions of emotion underly the three aspects of studying emotion- cognitive, physiological, and behavior. The latter focuses on the action and reaction taken as a result of emotions- our emotional response. Emotions are related to our experiences and what we attach to each experience. Because emotions are so significant, Paul Ekman, Ph.D. in his book " "Emotions Revealed, Second Edition: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life" suggest that this is the important question in this field; "If we can't erase or change our emotional reaction to a trigger, can we at least weaken its power so we don't react inappropriately?" (Ekman 2007, p 18) This paper briefly describes the three established theories that seek to explain emotions based on potential answers to Ekman's question following thirty years of study in the field of emotions and body language.
Three referenced theories that attempt to explain the process of emotions are the "James-Lange", "Cannon-Bard", and the "Cognitive Appraisal". (EruptingMind 2011) The James-Lange theory suggests that we can control the level of intensity an emotion conveys by controlling our physical response. Physiological research, however, reveals that the "amygdala" within the brain plays a key role in our fear-survival response and sends a myriad of signals prompting changes in our homeostatic baselines. (Reeve p 57) Johnmarshall Reeves, in his text, "Understanding Motivation and Emotion", pointed out that the amygdala sends signals or projections throughout the brain, but only a few of these paths return information back to the amygdala. This suggests that there are limited actions that can be controlled to downplay the survival response of the amygdala, but that research should be able to identify the key areas of the brain and the they key actions they are linked to, if any, that we have control over. Breathing slow, deeper breaths versus rapid shallow breaths, or walking briskly rather than running can reduce our sense of panic and reduce the intensity of an emotion and can help us respond positively in circumstances, i.e., in a crowd of people where panic leading to a stampede could be more harmful then the danger being responded to. The Canon-Bard theory explains how the body utilizes a relay center to promote efficiency so that the body is making the physiological changes (changes in baseline states occur also) as the brain is making sense of the cause of an emotion. This allows quicker physical responses if the sight, sound, smell, feeling (sensation) is a legitimate threat. Something may scurry across your path of vision suddenly before you make sense of it, but your brain through the thalamic readies your body ("just in case") to strike, run, shout etc. Or perhaps the thalamic receives messages because of a sensation of something crawling up your leg until you determine whether it is a venomous spider, for example, your body has readied your reaction/reflex to swat it off, jerk your leg, etc. Reeve points to some who are critical of studies trying to identify basic emotions, but believes that there are six common types of emotions; fear, anger, disgust, sadness, joy, and interest. Reeves argues that basic emotions are instrumental in impacting motivation - causing us to take an action. Fear is the strongest motivator. It is also the hardest emotion to control and if one learns that the stimulus is not something to be afraid of can lose some of its intensity. Fear of water can keep you out of the water. But once you learn to tread water, dog paddle, or float and form pleasant associations of water feeling good on hot days, etc., the motivator that kept you out of the water looses its power over behavior. (Reeves 2009, p 313) In some circumstances our prehistoric response to fear is more intense or powerful than our cognition. Ekman provides an example of persons who are protected by a barrier and are told about a venomous snake and even that it sometimes strikes the glass thinking you are a mouse (dinner) or is engaging in its own fear response. And the person is told that if the snake becomes agitated and strikes the glass not to jump back. Invariably, the person jumps back, too slow to avoid the snake's bite if there wasn't protective glass. (Ekman 2007, pp 27-29) In other words, certain emotional responses occur when the body gets a signal in only a millisecond, but quicker than the brain's cognitive ability of the mind to send the message that the glass is protecting you from the sudden motion of the snake before you respond reflexively. The Cognitive Appraisal Theory addresses emotions that lead to arousal. this theory suggests that mental labels will influence whether you experience pleasure or unpleasure. Johnmarshall Reeve, however, cautions about attempting to control physiological states, such as hunger and thirst, because it can cause more harm than good. Reeve pointed out three examples where manipulating the mind can have negative consequences; "1) underestimate how powerful a motivational force behind biological urges can be when they are not currently experiencing them", "2) lack standards or have inconsistent standards", and "3) fail to monitor what they are doing, as they become distracted from their cognitive regulation and default to pent-up physiological needs." (Reeve 2009, p 106)
Learning how emotions impact our behavior, how we think, and how we feel is important. But since emotions are so unique to the human experience tampering with them poses difficult ethical considerations in determining how to apply findings from the research. Should science be used to alter the minds, through physiological procedures and or via medications that block signals and/or chemical production within the brain, etc., of persons whose emotions lead to biological urges and motivate behavior that harms society, other individuals, or themselves?
Ekman PH.D., Paul, "Emotions Revealed, Second Edition: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life" [Paperback]2007, Owl Books/Henry Holt & Company L.L.C., ISBN: 13: 978-0-8050-8339-2, 10: 0-8050-8339-1.
Theories of Emotions in Psychology, 2011, EruptingMind.com, Self Improvement Tips, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011.
Reeve, Johnmarshall, "Understanding Motivation and Emotion" [Hardcover] 2009, John Wiley & Sons Inc., ISBN: 978-0-470-39223-2.
Do you have the references? thanks
I attached the references - I don't know what happened to them - I will send them as a separate answer.
Theories of Emotions in Psychology, 2011, EruptingMind.com, Self Improvement Tips, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011. http://www.eruptingmind.com/emotions-psychology/
Here is the third answer. So sorry, but the ice storm here has me behind schedule- lost power and on top of that rain froze so solid on my door I almost was going to crawl out a window, but I couldn't open my car doors - my car looked like an igloo. I was rescued from my house and went to a shelter for warmth & warm food & hot coffee- cold coffee - yuck! anyway, I am back at it again.You can use the references, especially University of Maryland and provide a bland answer- I focused on personality. But I addressed this answer in an interesting way and almost adopted prior findings to propose a hypothesis: "that resistance to demands impacts our response to stress". Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
Stress does not just describe a feeling or sensation. Research has concluded that there are real physiological changes in response to stress. Hans Selye's research revealed that there are real changes to the cortex, adrenal glands, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and results in the disappearance of eosinophil cells. (Greenberg 2004, pp 1-6) Prior to Selye's finding's, Walter Cannon described the physical responses to stress as the body's preparation for "fight or flight response". (Greenberg 2004, pp 1-6) Our bodies have responses to our environment and stimuli that have slowly adapted with man over thousands of years which has aided in his survival. What is stress and what influences our reactions to stress are two questions this paper addresses.
In the opening passage to his book, "Comprehensive Stress Management" Jerrold Greenberg suggested that stress occurs when there is exposure to too much change to rapidly which then results in physiological responses. (Greenberg 2004) Even though the changes he described were mainly positive Greenberg's body finally reacted to the rapid change by vomiting. We have a natural resistance to change that our body's prehistoric response attempts to protect us from. The changes Greenberg described, however, were symbolic in nature. In other words, according to A.T.W. Simeon's hypothesis in his book, "Man's Presumptuous Brain", Greenberg's "brain has failed to adapt or keep up with symbolic stressors of the 20th century". (Greenberg 2004, pp 1-6) Whether or not Simeon's hypothesis is valid, it denotes the role of "stressors". Greenberg described a stressor as a stimuli that has "potential to cause a stress reaction".(Greenberg 2004, pp 1-6) This allows for a very broad range of stimuli - from the very real to the very abstract cognitive stressors. With such a broad spectrum of stressors it poses challenges for us to control or mange them.
An interesting observation regarding Greenberg's story and how he reacted to positive stress involves resistance. Selye's three phases of stress-reactivity underly the aspect of resistance: Phase 1 - resistance is diminished, Phase 2 - resistance ensues, and Phase 3 - and end of resistance.(Greenberg 2004, pp 1-6) He didn't say it, but he implied it in his description. It was an environmentally wonderful day- based upon the weather. He described that he could be doing various activities that he equated enjoyment or relaxation to. His three examples of the activities he would have enjoyed doing that day provided a clue. "Playing tennis, jogging, or helping his son learn to ride a bike", all seemed enjoyable to him. Instead, on that pleasant Spring day Greenberg found himself on his way to give a speech- one of his requirements toward being a fully tenured professor (community involvement). So, although he believed that his stress was due to too much change over what he perceived to be a relative short time that culminated in his physiological response - becoming nauseated, it contradicts the physiological definition of stress. "Stress is the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it" is the definition Selye proposed. Because Greenberg had more positive choices he preferred to do, cognitively, he was resisting the demand made upon him to give the speech - it was a response rather than a chronic condition.
Whether a demand is threatening or positive, the above example points out that our personality is one factor, then, that plays a significant role in how one reacts to stressors - stimuli that makes demands.(Simon & Zieve 2009) (Landsberg 1996) A lion's roar can be perceived as a threat or reward. A hunter equates the roar with satisfying his hunger, but someone not engaged in the activity of hunting (is not prepared) focuses on the potential threat to their life. There is low resistance to the demand imposed by the roar for the hunter. For the women gathering herbs to prepare meals with, or to use as medicine perhaps, there is high resistance in addition to the flight or fight response. The threat demands that she avoid the lion but she prefers her routine of gathering the herbs which is disrupted. Depending on our circumstances, most of the demands made on us in the United States, however, generally are not perceived as a threat. they are demands made on our time and limit our enjoyable choices. When you resist the flight or fight response is triggered- results in physiological changes that we describe as being stressful. Our personality and emotions and physiological triggers impact how we respond to stress.(Reeve 2009, p 63) Other factors, in addition to personality traits, that also influence our physiological response to stress include early nurturing (impact on the hypothalamus), genetic factors (research involving serotonin levels impact on heart rate or ones ability to relax their muscles are examples of genetic influences), diseases associated with a malfunctioning immune system(tend to reduce our ability to and our physical response to stress), and whether stressors are constant (lasting) and the quality of a stressor.(Simon & Zieve 2009) Stress Management is defined as the ability to maintain your control when situations, people, and events make excessive demands. (Landsberg 1996) Research and greater understanding of stress and our physical preparation and response- such as bracing (tensing of muscles so they are at the ready), have led to research and theories that our response to stress can be managed to a certain degree by employing various physical techniques and cognitive approaches.(Simon & Zieve 2009)
Greenberg, Jerrold, "Comprehensive Stress Management", (Paperback) 8th Edition, 2004, 1st edition 1983, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., ISBN: 0-07-255707-9.
Landsberger, Joe,"How Can You Manage your Stress?", "Study Guides and Strategies", since 1996, Study Guides and Strategies, Downloaded from the Internet, January, 2011. http://www.studygs.net/stress.htm
Simon MD, Harvey (Editor-in-Chief) & Zieve MD & MHA, Dave (Reviewer) Stress - Risk Factors, February 2009, A.D.A.M., Inc affiliated with The University of Maryland Medical Center, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011. http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/who_at_risk_chronic_stress_or_stress-related_diseases_000031_6.htm
There is an issue with site so I had to add references in a separate window. Tim
References:Greenberg, Jerrold, "Comprehensive Stress Management", (Paperback) 8th Edition, 2004, 1st edition 1983, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., ISBN: 0-07-255707-9.Landsberger, Joe,"How Can You Manage your Stress?", "Study Guides and Strategies", since 1996, Study Guides and Strategies, Downloaded from the Internet, January, 2011. http://www.studygs.net/stress.htmReeve, Johnmarshall, "Understanding Motivation and Emotion" [Hardcover] 2009, John Wiley & Sons Inc., ISBN: 978-0-470-39223-2. Simon MD, Harvey (Editor-in-Chief) & Zieve MD & MHA, Dave (Reviewer) Stress - Risk Factors, February 2009, A.D.A.M., Inc affiliated with The University of Maryland Medical Center, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/who_at_risk_chronic_stress_or_stress-related_diseases_000031_6.htm
Here is the answer to the 4th question. Note that I used the 4th edition of the DSM, but there may be a 5th edition coming out since it has been ten years, but it may not be accessible yet. Please leave positive feedback and any bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer. Thank you, XXXXX XXXXX hope you had a better experience during the ice/snow storm than I did.
Mental Health Professionals use the DSM IV manual when working with patients in order to better understand their illness and potential treatment. DSM refers to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders currently in its IV production and is published by the American Psychiatric Association. Theodore Millon in his substantial work, "Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond (1996) presents the premise that personality disorders were not held in the same esteem in abnormal psychology or clinical psychiatry literature prior to the third edition of the DSM. He pointed out that Personality disorders now hold a place of diagnostic prominence now that they have been "accorded a contextual role in the multiaxial schema". Pathologies related to personality now comprise one of two required "mental disorder" axis. Since the 1960s there has been public awareness regarding early intervention into mental health by its early identification. "Ordinary anxieties, minor personal conflicts, and social inadequacies are now seen as the forerunners of more serious problems", Millon wrote. This underlies the publics concern with state mental hospitals that developed notorious reputations and the promulgation of the community health centers. This broadened the scope of clinical psychopathology to include a broader spectrum of mild to severe mental disorders. In connection with this shift, the third and fourth editions of the DSM were published in 1980 and 2000.
Axis II of the DSM IV addresses Developmental and Personality disorders. The manual identifies personality disorders as encompassing the individual's way of interacting with the world besides just clinical syndromes. the word constellation is popular in psychology and clinical syndromes refer to various groupings or clusters that result in patterns observed physically or in clinical settings that are associated with the primary disease process. According to S. Nassir Ghaemi, in his book, "Mood Disorders: A Practical Guide'"( 19) because there is a tradition of hierarchy in psychiatric diagnosis if there are physical or clinical symptoms of a mood disorder it should be considered before diagnosis lower on the hierarchal pyramid. A mood disorder is also referred to sometimes as an affective disorder, but is used less frequently because affective referred only to what others observed, whereas mood includes the internal feelings of the individual. Millon has pointed out that mood is triggered by environmental challenges. Mood refers to whether one is in a depressive state, is temperamental and so forth. A professional should be able to identify triggers that affect the individuals mood. The DSM IV, pages 345-428, makes a distinction between a person who has had a manic or hypomanic episode and someone experiencing depression who has not had an episode. Mood disorders refer to depression and the two types are called major depressive disorder MDD or bipolar disorder BP. BP is associated with the manic or hypomanic episodes. A depressed mood is a predictable response to certain types of environmental challenges. (Ghaemi 2003, pp 65-68) Examples of such challenges are overcoming ones loss of status, experiencing a divorce, or death of a child or spouse. Losses are typical challenges that can provoke depression. Sexual dysfunction is often associated with depression also. Some persons turn away from previous activities and behaviors that they associate with being unproductive. The hypothesis that a certain type of creativity and depression are linked has been proposed which suggest a cognitive cause - a specific area of the brain may be impacted which is a current area of study.
An Anxiety disorder, that is listed after Mood disorders in the DSM, is addressed on pages 429-484. An anxiety disorder is associated with a fear or phobia which distinguishes it from feeling depressed. There are generally four aspects of experience that are associated with anxiety: mental apprehension, physical tension, physical symptoms, and hyperventillating. The latter is also referred to as "disassociative" anxiety. For diagnosis of a disorder there are three categories of anxiety: 1) generalized 2) phobic 3) and panic. Each has different symptoms and levels affiliated with it. According to David H. Barlow PhD., persons with anxiety disorders spend twice as much on physicians visits than other persons who visit their doctors.(Barlow 2002) It is no wonder then that Barlow also pointed out that drugs to treat anxiety are the most widely used in the world. Another interesting point made by Barlow is that panic and fear are synonymous when it comes to panic attacks and its association with the body's flight or fight survival mechanism. Studies reveal that the body goes through similar physiological changes when one is having a panic attack or experiencing fear. (Barlow 2002, p 107)
A delusional disorder is referred to as a psychoticmental disorder. In the DSM IV a delusional disorder is listed under Schizophrenia and other Psychotic disorders. This disorder is not diagnosed unless there are prominent, but non bizarre delusions are present for at least one month. The individual has not met the symptoms of schizophrenia either. A person can still interact with other persons normally and any mood episode - feelings of joy or depression are only associated with the occurrence of the hallucination - the mood does not linger as that would be a possible symptom of a mood disorder which has been pointed out as having priority as a diagnosis if symptoms are met. The DSM IV, pages 297-344, defines delusions as false beliefs based on an incorrect inference about external reality that persist despite the evidence to the contrary and these beliefs are not ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture.(American Psychological Association 2000, p 323) When understanding delusional disorders Psychiatrist need to distinguish between grandiose or overvalued ideas and an actual delusion. It sounds like one is making the delusion real for the patient by making such a distinction! Along the same lines of distinguishing if the person is simply involved in overvalued ideas the persons religious beliefs need to be considered as well.(Chopra 2009) Because persons experiencing delusions can keep them "circumscribed" and therefore experiences it internally without physical symptoms of a panic attack or a depressed mood and without sharing the experience many persons will not seek treatment. Fortunately, this disorder, typically, is not as severe as other disorders, even though treatment is not certain.
Briefly, three disorders that can affect ones personality were addressed. The role of the DSM in the field of psychiatry was discussed. The concept of a hierarchy of diagnosis was also discussed. Of the three disorders, a mood disorder is the disorder requiring treatment first and it is therefore important to assess all the symptoms to make a proper diagnosis since some are shared. Anxiety Disorders are connected with biologically predisposed physiological responses to fear referred to as the flight or fight response theories suggest man adapted to his environment with in order to survive. The least serious disorder, in most cases, is a delusional disorder, but because physiology is not linked to this disorder, generally, treatment is uncertain. But it is important to consider whether it is a delusion versus grandiose thinking or a strongly held belief.
The American Psychiatric Association (co-authored corporately), "Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, [DSMIV-TR] Fourth Edition- Text Revision 2000, The American Psychiatric Association, ISBN: 0-89042-024-6 (casebound), 0-89042-025-4 (pbk).
Barlow Ph.D., David H., "Anxiety and its Disorders, Second Edition: (paperback) 2002, The Guilford Press, ISBN: 1-57230-430-8.
Chopra, Shivani (author) & (co-authors), "Delusional Disorder", Nov. 2009, eMedicine from WebbMD, Nov. 2009, Downloaded from the Internet, January 2011.http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/292991-overview
Millon, Theodore, "Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond", 1996, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN: 0-471-01186-X.
Ghaemi, Nassir R., "Mood Disorders: A Practical Guide" (paperback) 2nd Edition 2008, 1st Edition 2003, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBNs 13: 978-0-7817-6763-7 & 10: 0-7817-6763-6.
The answers have been awesome!! Glad to hear you made it through the storm okay! we have had quite a bit of snow where I live as well this year. when do you think you will have the last two answers?
Here is the fifth answer. It was a curve ball of sorts because it went from Psychiatry/Psychology (disorders) to an area of study in the field of Social Psychology. My approach to describing the process was to break down Kendra Cherry's short definition into a time component and an information component which impacts how we make our perceptions about others. it is a fascinating topic actually because of information systems and computers - combat (I think of those Terminator movies and Sky Net) Human beings, typically, are not capable of acting in such a destructive manner with their immediate perceptions. I elaborated with some invented analogies, which you can remove if you need to shorten (but they make the principles clear). I avoided any physiology regarding this question. There are so many avenues to go anymore! Your 6th question I should have complete before noon. Please leave positive feedback and bonus is appreciated when you accept your answer.
In Social Psychology "person perception" refers to the various mental processes used to form our impressions of other people. (Cherry, 2005) It encompasses both how we form our impressions and therefore the conclusions we reach about other people. An important reason that person perception is studied is that we can understand overt behavior by studying how people form perceptions, beliefs, and feelings. (Smith & Mackie 2000) This paper presents a brief overview of what Social Psychology has learned about the process of how we form our impressions and conclusions of others.
An important factor that influences how human beings form their perceptions is that they generally do so in a very short time. (Cherry 2005) Kendra Cherry made this important point in this statement; "People often form impressions of others very quickly with only minimal information." Thus implied is a time element and the quality of information relied on. The process is fraught with errors and many misconceptions, yet military planners attempt to immolate this model utilizing "real-time information" on the battlefield to make conclusions regarding their combat actions.(Chandler 1996, p 127) Since 1996, then, the scope with which real-time intelligence can be gathered and computers and analyst are allowed to make decisions with this limited, narrow information is hard to comprehend. Smith and Mackie in their text, "Social Psychology" (2000), have identified eight principles that under pin the field of Social Psychology. Three of these principles explain the process of how human beings make their perceptions about other people they encounter in a short time frame. (Smith & Mackie 2000, pp 18-19) Conservatism, Accessibility, and Superficiality versus depth explain how human beings make sense of others in a short time. Conservatism is a processing principle that views held by groups and individuals are slow to change and generally perpetuate themselves. We are a product of the society, family, and friends that shape our understanding of the world. Accessibility is a processing principle that holds that our consciousness is influenced by information that is most readily available. This is different from how we distinguish between types of information, i.e., foreground, back ground, discernment versus noise, perspective, and so forth. Information made immediately known will have more importance than perhaps information learned about an individual in the future. For examples consider these scenarios. What is our perception of a classical guitarist your date took you to see? A week later you meet the guitarist at the movie/music rental store while she is working behind the counter. Now what is your perception? You visit the appliance repair store with your broken floor cleaner and are assisted by an employee behind the counter. What is your perception of that person? A week later you have tickets for a show at the Comedy House. On stage you realize the comedian is your appliance repairman. If you haven't told your date of this coincidence and one compared your date's perception of the comedian versus your perception would be interesting. Conservatism and accessibility reduce us to make sense of the world with labels, which as the above examples demonstrate, can be somewhat erroneous. Is it more important to us that the person is a comedian or an appliance repair person? This leads to the third principle which is influenced by time. Superficiality versus depth points out that human beings operate in a way so that they generally put a minimum amount of effort dealing with information. There defined role also influences how they deal with the information around them. There are cues, disruptions, and triggers, and circumstances, however, that can motivate us to consider information in more depth. Perhaps a grocery store cashier can tell a lot about different customer's family size by the amounts and kinds of items in their shopping basket placed on the conveyor belt. But ignores this information in order to focus on rapidly scanning all the items to reach a total. Instead the cashier is concerned with "cash or credit". The cashier evaluates each customer quickly to perceive if they are a cash or credit (including a food stamp or W.I.C. voucher customer). Processing that perception is necessary to prepare the cashier to properly finalize the purchases and transaction. But a customer is in line with her buggy and is preoccupied with looking around the store rather than placing her items on the conveyor belt and readying their method of payment. Now the cashier considers the customer's purchases with more awareness and realizes there are many sugary breakfast cereals and realizes the customer probably has small children. The cashier is now prompted to gather more detailed information. She asks, "Can I help you find something?" "I don't see my daughter", the customer replies. This invented situation, which probably occurs daily in grocery stores somewhere, clarifies the distinction between superficiality and depth and suggests a motivational factor (a disruption in routine) that causes us to invest more effort and time into our perception.In this example the cashier both enhanced her perception (noticed the cereals) and sought reinforcement (her question to the customer).
Kendra Cherry provides three concepts that explain how we process information which impacts our immediate perceptions. Cherry discussed roles and social norms, physical cues, and salience. Roles and norms reflects the expectations, based on our experience and knowledge, of how someone should perform. What do we expect of the driver when we enter the bus, when a wait person comes to our table, or a police officer directing traffic. Once I went to a shinny silver retro style dinner for the ambiance more than for the food, although it is nice to have both be excellent. After musing a moment at my table over the old fashion 45 rpm record player the waitress arrived. "Whatcha having today mack?" she intoned. She had picked up my closed menu (she must of thought I knew what I wanted to order since the menu was closed). I asked, "How are the hamburgers" She suddenly turned to the order window and hollered; "Give me a Burger special!". That is the very condensed version of the story and it was an excellent hamburger and float I had to wash it down. But this was not my expectation of the role a waitress plays. Physical cues may or may not mimic roles. But clothing and style of dress are important pieces of information which immediately provide information that influences our perceptions. Salience refers to information that is most noticeable. Something in the foreground gets noticed more than in the background. Also something novel will get our attention. Imagine ten persons going to a job interview. All the candidates wear suits. One of the ten candidates holds a thin folder containing his or her resume in their hand after being seated. The other nine candidates place their brief cases by the side of their chair and leave their resume (if they brought one) in their brief case. Which of these candidates appears to be the best prepared to discuss their abilities and skills they can offer the company? This example demonstrates how a novel physical feature as well as something in the foreground can influence the perception of a hiring manager. This example also describes another process that human beings engage in according to Cherry. We take mental shortcuts in making our perceptions called social categorization. Had one of the ten candidates for the job interview arrived wearing tropical shorts and a flowered short sleeve shirt he or she would not fit our social categorization. The conclusion from this perception might be that the person is not serious about seeking employment or will not fit our conservative culture. According to Cherry referencing (Bargh, et al., 1996) we group people automatically. Other common groups are age, gender, occupation, and race.
This paper discussed the time element and the information that impacts how human beings form mental impressions of other human beings. To discuss the time element I presented three of the eight principles of Social Psychology presented in the text, "Social psychology". In reviewing how information is processed given the restrictions of time I summarized three processes presented by the Psychology Guide, Kendra Cherry. Further interesting studies is how this knowledge is employed in designing information processing systems and in influencing public policy.
Chandler, Robert W. "Tomorrow's War, Today's Decisions: Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Implications of Wmd-Adversaries for Future U.S. Military Strategy" [Paperback] 1996, AMCODA Press, McClean Virginia, ISBN: 0-9650770-0-4.
Cherry, Kendra, "Person Perception: How We Form Impressions Of Other People", 2005 About.com: Psychology, A New York Times Company, Downloaded from the Internet: January 2011http://psychology.about.com/od/socialpsychology/a/person-perception.htm
Smith, Eliot R. and Mackie, Diane M., "Social Psychology" [Paperback]2000, Psychology Press, ISBN: 0-86377-587-X.