Kalah, here is your answer. Note: some of the texts can be viewed on-line by previewing them at the publisher's web site, i.e. Chapman's book at Yale University Press - definitely worth reviewing. Also definitely go to this link and view the short video referred to in your answer: http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/menteleonardo/evideo.asp?c=14138&nf=I_A_c_apice2&r=w. Those two sources and Color vision Art shaped the content of the answer. I hope you find the content to be compelling. Please let me know with a info reply. Also, please leave positive Feedback when you accept your answer and any bonus is appreciated. This should give you an idea-perspective about how to approach future assignments. Take care, Tim
Summarize how Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci used drawing. Responses must be200 to 300 words. Drawing as an art form is discussed on pp. 170-175 of the text. In general, the student must cover how the artists used drawing as a way of visually thinking about compositional design. Da Vinci's drawings were displayed and appreciated as works of art. Michelangelo, however, destroyed many of his drawings, never wanting them to be shown.
Centuries later, the drawings of two of the Renaissance masters are considered to be master pieces of art, but Leonardo and Michelangelo's drawings reveal two different aspects of the art of drawing. Leonardo kept a journal and many of his sketches about anatomy and inventions for warfare are preserved. Michelangelo's surviving sketches- drawings, are fewer in number as near the end of his life he destroyed many of them, but due to his fame biographies about his life had been written about him in his time! From this material the perspective of Leonardo and the contrast of Michelangelo are revealed to us.
In referring to Leonardo's notebook's Day (2009) (Maclurdy, 1938) emphasized that Leonardo approached his drawings from "practice founded on sounded theory". He emphasized point, line, angle, supeficies and solid. The first term can be misleading in the 21st Century as we ofter think of a "point" in an abstract sense as used in algebra. The Mind of Leonardo video (Institute and Museum of the the History of Science) clarifies what is meant by point when discussing the study for the Adoration of the Magi. Point refers to perspective. Perspective is the place one actually views a scene from- it is central to the relief desired. An exhibit (Library of Congress) emphasizes the use of a "refined perspective grid" Modern technology imaging revealed that in his study he altered that point of perspective to coincide with the "divine proportion" and the "golden section". (video, The Mind of Leonardo) Depending on how Leonardo wanted to view the imagined scene, he divided up his scene and the section which was to be the central focus and reflected the point of view.
When the sketches and later cartoons prepared from sketches drawn by Michelangelo are considered one sees that contrast seems to be emphasized reflected in his interest on how light falls on a subject. Michelangelo's contemporaries and current critics of the Medici Chapel cannot reach a consensus of the rational behind it. (Barenboim, 2006) In light of the following discussion an older perspective put forth by Aristotle is relevant in appreciating this work of art. Chapman (2005) discussed how Michelangelo used two types of ink for this purpose. The change in tones of the ink, and even the paper, according to Chapman mask the true essence or effect that he was trying to achieve in his sketches. The yellowing of the paper, for example, masks how he used the white paper to convey the light on white marble as the Fresco to be painted would contain. The use of a lighter ink in his sketches denoted areas of shadow. Five centuries on, some of his drawings reveal the small circles he drew on them. He used these circles to remind himself where the light most struck the figure, in order that he could replicate it in the final painting. (Caistor 2006). Michelangelo's use of Cangiantismo- creating tone by shading colors with black or white (Color, vision, and Art) also points to his emphasis on contrast. Perhaps he shared the same systematic approach to the four types of light that Leonardo wrote about. He actually developed his own methodology for capturing tone which some historians claim Michelangelo attempted to keep secret by destroying many of his sketches.
In this significant difference between both masters we can see that Leonardo focused on lines to convey rationality and order established by perspective, whereas in the drawings of Michelangelo a balance in both sides of the argument first put forth by Aristotle (Color, vision, and Art) is trying to be achieved. Michelangelo's bold strokes (Michelangelo "last sketch" found, 2007) denote his idea is clear, but he is concerned with the senses of the viewer, which according to Aristotle is appealed to by color. Awareness of both elements employed in drawing increases our appreciation of the unique talents Artists display when creating a drawing.
Barenboim, Peter, "Michelangelo Drawings - Key to the Medici Chapel Interpretation", Moscow, Letny Sad, 2006, ISBN: 5-98856-016-4
BBC News Release, Michelangelo "last sketch" found, 7 Dec 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7133116.stm
Caistor, Nicholas, Released Article by the BBC- London, Michelangelo and the art of drawing , 23 March 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4836252.stm
Chapman, Hugo, Michelangelo drawings: closer to the master, Nov. 1 2005, Pg 56-58 Yale University Press, ISBN: 97803001114
Color Vision and Art, web page; Michelangelo's Exaggerated Contrast: Cangiantismo
Day, James, November 27th, 2009, comments on; Drawings, Paintings, & Writings by Leonardi da Vinci, Art of Day website. November 27th, 2009, http://artofday.com/wordpress/?p=2515
Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Video: The Mind of Leonardo http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/menteleonardo/evideo.asp?c=14138&nf=I_A_c_apice2&r=w
The Library of Congress, Exhibitions, Share the Perspective of Genius, Leonardo's Study for the the Adoration of Magi http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/leonardo/
Maclurdy, (1938) The notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci