Axia College Material
The following websites are resources for your final project and course assignments.
U.S. Art Museums
The Metropolitan Museum of Art: http://www.metmuseum.org/
The Museum of Modern Art: http://www.moma.org/
National Gallery of Art: http://www.nga.gov/
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: http://www.mfa.org/
The Phillips Collection: http://www.phillipscollection.org/
The Art Institute of Chicago: http://www.artic.edu/aic/index.php
Whitney Museum of American Art: http://www.whitney.org/
Guggenheim Museum New York: http://www.guggenheim.org/new_york_index.shtml
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: http://www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/
Smithsonian American Art Museum and the Renwick Gallery: http://americanart.si.edu/index3.cfm
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden: http://hirshhorn.si.edu/
Smithsonian Institution National Museum of African Art: http://www.nmafa.si.edu/voice.html
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery: http://www.asia.si.edu/
The National Portrait Gallery: http://www.npg.si.edu/
Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum: http://cooperhewitt.org/
National Museum of the American Indian: http://www.nmai.si.edu/
The Getty: http://www.getty.edu/
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art: http://www.sfmoma.org/
National Hispanic Cultural Center: http://www.nationalhispaniccenter.org/index.php
American Visionary Art Museum: http://www.avam.org/
American Folk Art Museum: http://www.folkartmuseum.org/default.asp?id=886
National Museum of Mexican Art: http://www.nationalmuseumofmexicanart.org/
The British Museum: http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/
Victorian and Albert Museum: http://www.vam.ac.uk/
National Portrait Gallery: http://www.npg.org.uk/live/index.asp
The National Gallery, London: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/
Royal Academy of Arts: http://www.royalacademy.org.uk/
Musée de Louvre: http://www.louvre.fr/llv/commun/home_flash.jsp?bmLocale=en
Musée d'Orsay: http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/home.html
Centre Pompidou: http://www.centrepompidou.fr/home30ans/index.html
Museo Nacional del Prado: http://museoprado.mcu.es/ihome.html
Vatican Museums: http://mv.vatican.va/3_EN/pages/MV_Home.html
Polo Museale Fiorentino: http://www.polomuseale.firenze.it/english/musei/uffizi/
Galleria Borghese: http://www.galleriaborghese.it/
Amiens Cathedral: http://www.mcah.columbia.edu/Mcahweb/index-frame.html
Buddhist Architecture: http://www.indiasite.com/architecture/buddhist.html
Great Buildings Collection: http://www.greatbuildings.com/
Sculpture and Installation
Kiki Smith: http://www.sfmoma.org/exhibitions/exhib_detail.asp?id=206
Pepón Osorio: http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/osorio/
Museum Timelines for Final Project Inspiration
Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/splash.htm?HomePageLink=toah_l
American Art Timeline: http://www.phillipscollection.org/research/american_art/index.htm
Judy Chicago: http://www.judychicago.com/
Aida Cui: http://www.aidacui.com/
Niki Glen: http://www.glenstudios.com/
Eva Hesse: http://www.evahesse.com/biography.php
Edmonia Lewis: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lewis_edmonia.html#museums
Faith Ringgold: http://www.faithringgold.com/
Bill Viola: http://www.billviola.com/
The Artchive: http://artchive.com/ftp_site.htm
Art Cyclopedia: http://www.artcyclopedia.com/
Web Gallery of Art: http://www.wga.hu/
Kalah, here is your answer. Note: some of the texts can be viewed on-line by previewing them at the publisher's web site, i.e. Chapman's book at Yale University Press - definitely worth reviewing. Also definitely go to this link and view the short video referred to in your answer: http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/menteleonardo/evideo.asp?c=14138&nf=I_A_c_apice2&r=w. Those two sources and Color vision Art shaped the content of the answer. I hope you find the content to be compelling. Please let me know with a info reply. Also, please leave positive Feedback when you accept your answer and any bonus is appreciated. This should give you an idea-perspective about how to approach future assignments. Take care, Tim
Summarize how Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci used drawing. Responses must be200 to 300 words. Drawing as an art form is discussed on pp. 170-175 of the text. In general, the student must cover how the artists used drawing as a way of visually thinking about compositional design. Da Vinci's drawings were displayed and appreciated as works of art. Michelangelo, however, destroyed many of his drawings, never wanting them to be shown.
Centuries later, the drawings of two of the Renaissance masters are considered to be master pieces of art, but Leonardo and Michelangelo's drawings reveal two different aspects of the art of drawing. Leonardo kept a journal and many of his sketches about anatomy and inventions for warfare are preserved. Michelangelo's surviving sketches- drawings, are fewer in number as near the end of his life he destroyed many of them, but due to his fame biographies about his life had been written about him in his time! From this material the perspective of Leonardo and the contrast of Michelangelo are revealed to us.
In referring to Leonardo's notebook's Day (2009) (Maclurdy, 1938) emphasized that Leonardo approached his drawings from "practice founded on sounded theory". He emphasized point, line, angle, supeficies and solid. The first term can be misleading in the 21st Century as we ofter think of a "point" in an abstract sense as used in algebra. The Mind of Leonardo video (Institute and Museum of the the History of Science) clarifies what is meant by point when discussing the study for the Adoration of the Magi. Point refers to perspective. Perspective is the place one actually views a scene from- it is central to the relief desired. An exhibit (Library of Congress) emphasizes the use of a "refined perspective grid" Modern technology imaging revealed that in his study he altered that point of perspective to coincide with the "divine proportion" and the "golden section". (video, The Mind of Leonardo) Depending on how Leonardo wanted to view the imagined scene, he divided up his scene and the section which was to be the central focus and reflected the point of view.
When the sketches and later cartoons prepared from sketches drawn by Michelangelo are considered one sees that contrast seems to be emphasized reflected in his interest on how light falls on a subject. Michelangelo's contemporaries and current critics of the Medici Chapel cannot reach a consensus of the rational behind it. (Barenboim, 2006) In light of the following discussion an older perspective put forth by Aristotle is relevant in appreciating this work of art. Chapman (2005) discussed how Michelangelo used two types of ink for this purpose. The change in tones of the ink, and even the paper, according to Chapman mask the true essence or effect that he was trying to achieve in his sketches. The yellowing of the paper, for example, masks how he used the white paper to convey the light on white marble as the Fresco to be painted would contain. The use of a lighter ink in his sketches denoted areas of shadow. Five centuries on, some of his drawings reveal the small circles he drew on them. He used these circles to remind himself where the light most struck the figure, in order that he could replicate it in the final painting. (Caistor 2006). Michelangelo's use of Cangiantismo- creating tone by shading colors with black or white (Color, vision, and Art) also points to his emphasis on contrast. Perhaps he shared the same systematic approach to the four types of light that Leonardo wrote about. He actually developed his own methodology for capturing tone which some historians claim Michelangelo attempted to keep secret by destroying many of his sketches.
In this significant difference between both masters we can see that Leonardo focused on lines to convey rationality and order established by perspective, whereas in the drawings of Michelangelo a balance in both sides of the argument first put forth by Aristotle (Color, vision, and Art) is trying to be achieved. Michelangelo's bold strokes (Michelangelo "last sketch" found, 2007) denote his idea is clear, but he is concerned with the senses of the viewer, which according to Aristotle is appealed to by color. Awareness of both elements employed in drawing increases our appreciation of the unique talents Artists display when creating a drawing.
References:Barenboim, Peter, "Michelangelo Drawings - Key to the Medici Chapel Interpretation", Moscow, Letny Sad, 2006, ISBN: 5-98856-016-4BBC News Release, Michelangelo "last sketch" found, 7 Dec 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7133116.stmCaistor, Nicholas, Released Article by the BBC- London, Michelangelo and the art of drawing , 23 March 2006 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4836252.stmChapman, Hugo, Michelangelo drawings: closer to the master, Nov. 1 2005, Pg 56-58 Yale University Press, ISBN: 97803001114Color Vision and Art, web page; Michelangelo's Exaggerated Contrast: Cangiantismohttp://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/michelangelo.htmlDay, James, November 27th, 2009, comments on; Drawings, Paintings, & Writings by Leonardi da Vinci, Art of Day website. November 27th, 2009, http://artofday.com/wordpress/?p=2515 Institute and Museum of the History of Science, Video: The Mind of Leonardo http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/menteleonardo/evideo.asp?c=14138&nf=I_A_c_apice2&r=wThe Library of Congress, Exhibitions, Share the Perspective of Genius, Leonardo's Study for the the Adoration of Magi http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/leonardo/Maclurdy, (1938) The notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci
Purpose of Assignment
This assignment familiarizes students with the variety of painting styles from the past and how changes in style reflect on its associated era. There are many changes in artistic styles over the centuries and focusing on Neoclassicism, Impressionism, and Abstract Expressionism provides an appropriate scope for students in an introductory art class. Students apply formal vocabulary, which they must include in the final project.
pp. 504-518 in Ch. 21 & Ch. 22 of A World of Art
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries by Jacques Louis David on the National Gallery of Art website at www.nga.gov/
The Luncheon of the Boating Party by Pierre-Auguste Renoir on the Phillips Collection website athttp://www.phillipscollection.org/
Autumn Rhythm (Number 30) by Jackson Pollock on the Metropolitan Museum of Art website athttp://www.metmuseum.org/
The Works in Progress explanation of Pollock on pp. 134-135 in Ch. 7 of A World of Art
MyArtsLab - The Closer Look at Pollock's Autumn Rhythm found in Ch. 7
MyArtsLab - The video link of Jackson Pollock at Work found in Ch. 7.
Student answers may vary but must be 500 to 700 words in length.
Let me know what else you need. Thanks a lot!
I can't promise because I just saw it and I was helping people most of the day today.
If i can get it finished early tomorrow......Are there questions in those short reading assignments or just info about art theory/appreciation?
are you supposed to go to the links provided and discuss the art presented there - one of the four periods/types at the beginning?
pp. 504-518 in Ch. 21 & Ch. 22 of A World of Art - What is the content about in this section - are there questions?
Can you give me this link?
and summarize this:
Your text book isn't available on-line to me...
A World of Art by Henry M. Sayre is that the author of your book...if so...I need a summary of the section - topic, headings, index, are there study questions related to your assignment in these parts of the text?
I'm going to try to do this question, but I need you clarify so I understand the expectation a bit better...thank you, Tim
Here is what I suggest for an opening paragraph...it conveys the purpose of the paper, prepares the reader for the three pieces of Art to be discussed, and a general frame work for our discussion - three styles or periods of Art. Your instructor wants you to discuss each of the three pieces of art (which I looked at carefully from your links) utilizing the "language of art" as it applies to each piece and how it fits or where it fits one of three styles. For example, The Emperor Napoleon....doesn't fit exactly into Neoclassicism, but the other two pieces fit the other styles (like a glove!) So I will work on preparing the rest of the paper in three paragraphs and a fourth paragraph for a summary. What do you think?
I have errands, but was shooting to finish this before 8pm - will that give you enough time to format it, etc....do what you need to do?
Getting oriented with art is similar to taking a tour of a college campus. When you arrive on a college campus there are various buildings and there are your impressions as you approach the campus from a distance and get closer. Once one visits a college campus one learns now to orient themself - administation building, library, dorms, etc. To keep us from getting lost in the world of Art three periods or styles of Art serve as a good frame of reference. This paper briefly considers three recognized Works of Art. Our frame of reference which serve as our landmarks in the art world are the styles of Neoclassicism, Impressionism, and Abstract Expressionism.
Kalah, here is the first paragraph...Emperor Napoleon.... and neoclassicism.
Our first piece of art we are visiting is the oldest of the three to be discussed. It is titled The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries. That is fairly lengthy title so to make it easier to discuss in this paper this art work's title will be referred to only as "Napoleon in His Study". First we note when it was painted. The year Napoleon in His Study was painted was 1812. The Neoclassicism style is attributed to the later half of the 18th Century and very early period of the 19th Century. Our next closest style, Impressionism Art, occurred in the later half of the 19th Century. Our third style, Abstract Expressionism is near the middle of the 20th century. So the building on our art campus we want to visit is the Neoclassicism. Before we even get close enough to learn who painted it this painting appears to be a portrait. This is a vertical, full length or "swagger" portrait. This type of portrait was made by a painter to proclaim the subject of the portrait's "grandeur and superiority". (Art over 2,500 Works.., 2008) Even if we hadn't heard of the subject or were unaware of French history the title "Emperor" conveys that this is the obvious purpose of the portrait. The National Gallery of Art (www.nga.gov/) explained that the full length portrait in this period was also used by the artist to transform the subject into "Politically Powerful Icons". We see evidence of that in the details of this portrait also. For example, the document on the desk includes the word "code" to suggest an administrative style of government referred to as the Napoleonic Code. An artist known for his swagger portraits in a later period - John Singer Sargent, engaged high society with them. His portrait of a Countess made in 1896 is a good example. Neoclassicism places an emphasis on actual historical settings (historic subject matters) and costumes - Napoleon's uniform and choice of being in his study all denote this as being art from this style. Next we consider the artist- Jacques-Louis David. A review of his biography suggests that David subscribed to the German Scholar Johann Joachim Winckelmann's admonition; "that artists imitate Greek Art"- a renewed interest in classical antiquity was also enhanced among the aristocrats because of important Greek archaeological discoveries made in the 18th Century.David's Leonidas at the Pass of Thermopylae (1812-1814, Louvre) is an example of his being an artist motivated by Greek classical antiquity. But Napoleon in His Study is an example ofthe historic subject matter, given intimacy (attracts you to the subjects face) and subtle ornamentations (found on the chair, desk, and uniform) which is also connected to this style.
Kahali, here is the third paragraph...by the way did you read my requests? It would help if you can give me the link to Jackson Pollock noted in your question. It will help me focus on the Abstract Expressionism and his work of art in that style. Here is the section for the The Luncheon at the Boat House by Renoir. I can't finish the last section for a couple of hours...have to go out. But i will submit an answer...it will help if you supply the link and add the info i asked about regarding your text book. Keep in mind the word- have your word processor count - assignment is 500 to 700? so if this is lengthy you will need to edit it and make it more concise - focusing on the work of art and why it is an example of one of the three styles!
The second art work we will visit is on display at the Phillip's Collection also in Washington D.C. The original founder purchased this piece of art for his museum in 1923, nearly 90 years ago. When he purchased it he said it was the greatest painting in the world. With such a boast we definitely want to check it out. It is titled The Luncheon of the Boating Party. It was painted between the years of 1880-1881in France. Impressionist Art is one of our landmarks. Its style was developed in France in the 1870s. For this one we will take a look at the artist's name- Pierre-Auguste Renoir right away. We have a painting done by a French artist around the time Impressionist Art was displayed. The Art critic who dubbed this style, Louis Leroy, wrote when he critiqued the art on display in Paris by the Anonymous Society that this style seemed to be a sketch or an impression, but not a finished work of art that the official Salon respected in 1874. The Scale of this picture is large being about 4 feet by 6 feet. The scene takes place outside. There is an unfinished quality about the picture, but the use of unmixed primary colors, especially on the flowers of the hat, draws our subjective attention. Our attention is drawn to this young lady who is paying attention to a cat while the other subjects in the scene are focused on someone else. When Duncan Phillip purchased the most famous painting in the world he realized what subjective response Renoir had captured in this scene. An eligible man wants to gaze upon a woman whose attention is not on other men. The color is used for changes in light. Because it is the 21st century our value of what is modern is quite a bit different from 1874. In 1874, this picture's subject matter would have been quite a quite modern scene- a somewhat diverse group socializing in the country- taking advantage of the "weekend" that travel by train was recently making possible for workers like hat makers from the city. The The Luncheon of the Boating Party, then, is a modern picture for its time, which combined unmixed primary colors and use of color for light in an outdoor scene which evokes a subjective response. It is the definitive example of Impressionist Art.
Hi...I'm back, but you never gave me that link- did you read my posts?
I'll wing the third paragraph and conclusion without the information.l
Okay I can't find the information. Sorry