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Chris M.
Chris M., M.S.W. Social Work
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Experience:  Master's Degree, strong math and writing skills, experience in one-on-one tutoring (college English)
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Psychology

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Instructions. For each scenario presented below, identify the four major elements of classical conditioning.
Specify for each example (a) the unconditioned stimulus (US), (b) the unconditioned response (UR), (c) the
conditioned stimulus (CS), and (d) the conditioned response (CR).

1. To discourage coyotes from attacking their sheep, ranchers feed the coyotes small pieces of mutton tainted with poison that, when ingested, cause the coyotes experience extreme dizziness and nausea. Later,
when the coyotes are placed in the pen with the sheep, the mere smell of the sheep causes the coyotes to
run frantically away from their former prey.

2. As part of a new and intriguing line of research in behavioral medicine, researchers give mice saccharine flavored water (a sweet substance that mice love) and then follow it up with an injection of a drug that weakens mice's immune systems. Later, when these mice drank saccharine-flavored water, they showed signs of a weakened immune response. Research is currently underway to see if the reverse is possible (i.e., if conditioning can be used to increase immune functioning), a discovery which would surely have important implications for new medical treatments.

3. A passenger on an airplane was feeling very anxious about an important job interview the next morning,
and as a result he was uneasy and nervous throughout the flight. Back at home weeks later, he is contemplating a holiday trip. Though he hadn't previously been afraid to fly, he finds himself suddenly nervous about flying and decides to cancel his plans to visit an out-of-state relative.

4. It's no secret that people become unhappy when bad weather strikes, but what is surprising is that weather forecasters are consistently blamed for weather over which they obviously have no control. Weather forecasters around the country have been wacked by old ladies with umbrellas, pelted with snowballs, and even threatened with death (e.g., “You're the one that sent that tornado and tore up my house. . .I'm going to take your head off!”, or “If it snows over Christmas, you won't live to see New Year's!”) by people who mistakenly infer a causal relationship between the forecaster with subsequent foul weather patterns.

5. Why is it that automobile advertisements—especially those for sports cars—often feature beautiful young women? Because smart advertisers know (and research confirms) that new car ads that include an attractive female are rated by men as faster, more appealing, better-designed, and more desirable than similar ads that do not include an attractive female.
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