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1. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fir
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1. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fires
when we observe someone else’s behavior.
A. modeling C. mirror
B. reflective D. cognitive
2. The most frequently abused nervous system depressant is
A. marijuana. C. cocaine.
B. caffeine. D. alcohol.
3. I want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food
reward when I blow a whistle. In the process of this
conditioning effort, the main idea is to
A. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned
B. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
C. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle.
D. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry.4. I help Cameron learn to play a guitar by guiding him through a sequence of reinforced
behaviors, such as holding the guitar, tuning the guitar, and properly fingering simple
chords. In the operant conditioning perspective, this is called
A. shaping. C. latent learning.
B. gradual reinforcement. D. graded reinforcement.
5. According to information provided in your text, circadian rhythms are associated with
A. cycles of waking and sleeping.
B. the time of month that pregnant women are likely to go into labor.
C. attacks of sleep apnea.
D. the occurrence of anxiety attacks.
6. Professor Dore maintains that language develops through the interplay of genetically
determined factors and environmental influences that shape how language is learned.
Which of the following is true?
A. Professor Dore supports the learning theory approach to language development.
B. Professor Dore supports the interaction approach to language development.
C. Professor Dore supports the nativist approach to language development.
D. Professor Dore supports the linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
7. Responding to stimuli that are similar—but not identical—to a conditioned stimulus is
A. stimulus discrimination. C. stimulus generalization.
B. spontaneous recovery. D. respondent reinforcement.
8. Methadone can be used to treat heroin addiction. However, the main drawback in this
sort of treatment is that methadone
A. is psychologically addictive.
B. provides the same sort of “high” the addict experiences with heroin.
C. is very expensive to produce, since it’s derived from rare tropical plants.
D. is biologically addictive.
9. You deprive your six-year-old of dessert each time he fails to eat his spinach. In this
sort of _______, you weaken a response through taking away something pleasant or
A. negative reinforcement C. positive reinforcement
B. negative punishment D. positive punishment
10. Prescott is an old hand in the print shop. He insists that there’s only one dependable
kind of process for printing a three-color brochure. By contrast, Baldwin recognizes
several different approaches to three-color printing through the use of new digital
technologies. Psychologists would say Prescott’s point of view is limited by his
A. obsessive perfectionism. C. mental set.
B. mental laziness. D. fundamental fixation.
11. Regarding REM sleep, which statement is true?
A. REM sleep occurs only during state 4 sleep.
B. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning.
C. Roughly 20% of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM.
D. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep.
12. Which of the following is a specific technique used in behavior modification?
A. Selecting a behavior-change strategy
B. Training a subject in helpful weight-loss strategies
C. Keeping no records as the program is implemented
D. Reinforcing drug-related behaviors
13. During the _______ phase of problem solving, a means-ends analysis is a very
A. preparation C. production
B. algorithm D. judgment
14. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds
and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took
A. cocaine. C. MDMA.
B. marijuana. D. LSD.
15. A _______ reinforcement is one that satisfies a biological need.
A. primary C. conditional
B. neutral D. positive
16. I’m having some trouble recalling what I’ve previously learned about the Battle of
Gettysburg because I’ve just read a new book offering new information on that Civil
War battle. This sort of phenomenon is referred to as _______ interference.
A. passive C. distractive
B. retroactive D. proactive
17. There’s evidence that sudden infant death syndrome is related to
A. sleep apnea. C. narcolepsy.
B. night terrors. D. insomnia.
18. An important reason why people forget something is that they didn’t pay much
attention to it in the first place. Psychologists refer to this kind of forgetting as
A. decay. C. interference related.
B. encoding failure. D. cue-dependent.
19. I reward your behavior after I observe you correctly following a product assembly
procedure six times. In operant conditioning, this kind of partial reinforcement is based
on a _______ schedule.
A. variable-ratio C. fixed-ratio
B. variable-interval D. fixed-interval
20. Regarding hypnosis, which statement
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