I had a BSOD last night/this morning and wasn't able to see your info until now. How about 9:00 P.M. your time tonight? Also, I think it might help if you work on the discussion question to have something ready just in case I am pressed for time on the M/C questions.
1. diffusion of responsibility
2. Building a Relationship
4. saliency bias
5. self-serving bias
7. "I feel much happier when I am in Greece."
9. Group polarization
I got totally thrown of by questions 3,4, and 5. All seemed to be "self-serving bias" but I have never seen M/C quizzes with the same answer for three consecutive questions. Anyway, I ran out of time before #11. Sorry. How are you doing in this course overall. I have tried to help, but some of these question are very difficult without having the text. The overview and key concepts info helps some, but doesn't provide all the terms and concepts. Let me know what you think.
he Science of Psychology
Psychologists use the scientific method when conducting research. This allows the field to follow the same standardized scientific procedures that have worked so well for other scientists. This would entail the five steps of the scientific method:
The scientific method's empirical (measurable) focus has helped science to determine what is measurably real i.e. (empirical). The use of "empirical" methodology has allowed science and its applied cousin technology to achieve many great advances for humanity and avoid travelling too far down any "dead ends." Former American Psychological Association president Abraham Maslow wondered aloud if a human science like psychology should be forced to always be using the tools of the physical sciences. What do you think?
Still, while science (the pursuit of knowledge) is indeed valued in our culture, the scientific method has limitations. Psychologists need to be aware that they don't slip completely into ignoring that which they have trouble measuring. Former American Psychological Association president Abraham Maslow wondered aloud if a human science like psychology should be forced to always be using the tools of the physical sciences. Critics of its overuse contend that the scientific method has no means of proving that it is the sole means of proving something - for that it relies on logic.
Often considered the jewel in science's crown, the "controlled experiment" is the only scientific method that can prove cause and effect. Experiments are time-consuming and difficult to do and are subject to various problems such as experimenter bias, confirmation bias, sample bias, and participant bias. A good experimental research study will account for all of these by using a variety of techniques like single or double "blind" studies, control groups, placebos, representative and cross-cultural sampling, random assignment to groups, statistical comparisons and peer review and replication.
In any controlled experiment there are three main variables to consider: the independent variable (IV), the dependent variable (DV) and extraneous variables (EV's). The concept that students have the most difficulty with is often differentiating between the dependent variable and the independent variable. The independent variable (IV) is hypothesized to be a causal variable. That is, it is supposed to cause a measurable reaction or change in another variable. The dependent variable (DV) is the one variable that is supposed to measurably react to the presence of the IV, although it can also react to other variables (EV's). Extraneous variables (EV's) are any variables that could affect the DV besides the IV. The following is an example that should help to make clear how experiments are performed by scientists.
Say you wanted to test a hypothesis of whether kids who ingest sugar then don't learn as well in school. In order to test this hypothesis (testable idea), you need to operationally define the variables in the hypothesis. An "operational definition" is a concept that is defined in measurable terms. For example, whether kids (children aged 5-7 years of age) get a sugar high (the IV) would be operationally defined as having each child drink a 12 ounce can of sugar sweetened soda (Coca Cola) in 5 minutes or less. The control group (comparison group) would have children drink a 12 ounce Diet Coke in 5 minutes or less. Then we need to operationally define the DV as scores on a reading comprehension test of a story that all the students read. Think of what other variables (EV's) could affect the outcome or results of this experiment. Could the reading level of the story or the children's ability to read affect the outcome? Could the intelligence level of the children impact the results? Psychologists think they could and "control" for these EV's by holding them constant across both the experimental group (Sugar Coke) and the control group (Diet Coke). The children will enter the study and be randomly assigned to either the Experimental group or the Control group. Thus, any differences between the children should average out by the random assignment to the two different groups. The results would be tabulated (counted and measured) and then written up in a standardized format that would then be Published in a Journal (professional magazine) where other members of the scientific community would read and review/critique the research report of the experimental study. At some point a member of the scientific community (possibly the original researcher), would try to explain WHY the experimental results occurred as they did. This explanation is called a theory.
In the experiment described above, what was the independent and dependent variable? Could you list different extraneous variables than those already mentioned?
Although the experimental process is very systematic and is reviewed by a scientist's peers, mistakes can be made. Often, other scientists will replicate (duplicate exactly) the original experiment to see if they get the same results as the original researcher. They will publish their results and eventually all of the studies will be looked at to see if there is a consistent effect caused by the independent variable. The various theories explaining why the results have occurred will be reviewed and eventually a consensus will be reached. Often, at this point textbook authors will review these studies and theories and summarize them for students to read and study in various courses. That's where you are now.
Experiments are not always practical or ethical. It would be nice to know the effects of large-scale, long-term marijuana use by adolescents, but this would certainly be an unethical experiment. In an effort to answer this question and others that can't be addressed in an experiment, psychologists turn to other ways of conducting their research. Some examples include naturalistic observation (ex: the research done by Dian Fossey whom the movie "Gorillas In The Mist" was about was naturalistic observation); surveys (we hear A LOT about them during election time - exit polls are an example of a survey); case studies (such as studies of why Rudolph Giuliani was such a successful leader in the aftermath of 9/11); and correlation studies (these are the studies that you hear about noting things like how long someone lives and how many fruits and vegetables they eat).
Psychology attempts to use research to guide its theories and assumptions about human behavior. Without research, theories and assumptions are just guesses.
This tutorial requires no audio.
This course will cover six of the main psychological perspectives: behaviorism, cognitive psychology, psychodynamic theory, humanistic psychology, socio-cultural psychology, and the biological/evolutionary approach. If each of these approaches had a client suffering from depression, the behaviorism psychologist would be most interested in what ways the client had been conditioned to feel that way. A cognitive psychologist would be examining the client's thought patterns, seeking out maladaptive ones that lead to depression. A psychodynamic therapist would seek to learn of the ways the ego has been dealing with the id and superego. A humanistic psychologist would endeavor to set a proper atmosphere for the client to discover their blocked personal growth. The socio-cultural psychologist would examine the social and cultural environment of the client to determine how it is influencing the behavior. The biological/evolutionary perspective would focus on the influence of genetics on the brain chemistry and evaluate the client for medication. While these are all very different approaches, they all may indeed have valid points as to why the person is depressed and what needs to be done to help him or her.
By most standards, psychology is a relatively young field. The most widely known are the clinical and counseling psychologists, but psychologists also practice in other areas. There are developmental psychologists, educational psychologists, experimental psychologists, biopsychologists, neurological psychologists, industrial/organizational psychologists, social or cultural psychologists, and business/advertising psychologists. So you see, psychology extends well beyond traditional psychotherapy and into education, parenting, marketing, management, and health/fitness. As new fields emerge, it is likely that psychology will play a role in some of them as well.
Psychology is not a science without controversy. The chief debate revolves around how much of our behavior is a result of something that we can't change (genetics or our "nature") and how much comes from our upbringing and choices ("nurture"). This is no simple question. We can look around and see the impact of parenting, society, good teachers, and so on, and think that the influence of genetics is over-rated. Yet, on the other hand, we also can look around and see how children have traits similar to their parents and how similar identical twins really are. Psychologists continue to study how both genetics and environment influence personality and behavior. They are likely to be working on this question for a long while too.
Biology, Behavior, and Mental States
Last week, we covered how psychologists go about conducting research. This week, we want to explore the area that psychologists are studying - the human brain. The material isn't overly complex but there is a lot of vocabulary so be sure to make good use of the Study Mate cards - they'll be most helpful in getting all the terminology down.
The human brain is truly an amazing riddle. It weighs around 3 pounds yet uses approximately 20% of the oxygen a person breathes in. Psychologists have been trying to understand the enigma of the human brain since the field was born, yet despite having all sorts of new tools for research, we still have a long, long way to go.
Your brain really is amazing. We each have a blind spot on our eyes where the nerve attaches to the eye to send the visual information to the brain. Thus, there are no cones there to receive visual input. Rather than having a hole in your visual field, your brain automatically fills it in for you based on information from the other eye and what it expects to see there. Still not convinced? Try this little experiment: Put your hand over your left eye. Stare at the asterisk on the LEFT. Hold your nose about eight or nine inches from the screen and SLOWLY move your head forward and backwards. At a certain point, the asterisk on the right will disappear from your field of view. (Remember that this will happen as you are staring at the asterisk on the left. If you look at the one on the right, it won't work.)
How many of us have actually seen a neurotransmitter? Probably not many, yet their importance can hardly be overstated. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that the body manufactures in the neurons and when released, alter activity in other neurons. Dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine are all neurotransmitters. Dopamine problems play a role in schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and possibly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Problems with serotonin levels are often found in people with depression. Norepinephrine level problems are indicated in sleep disorders and also perhaps in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder too (particularly the inattentive type as this neurotransmitter seems to impact attention). Acetylcholine problems is a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease. It would seem that most people in our society are relatively unconcerned with neurotransmitters, but if they knew how vital they were, they might receive more attention.
Neurotransmitter levels are undoubtedly influenced greatly by genetics, but this is not to say that they are "cast in stone." Can continuous negative thinking adversely impact neurotransmitter levels? What impact do diet and exercise have? What damage do illegal drugs do? Can giving, receiving, or even observing acts of kindness raise serotonin levels? (Some internet sites claim such). These are all areas that are ripe for future research as we seek to unravel the connection among drugs, brains, and behaviors. We have learned things such as dopamine levels can be impacted by insufficient intake of vitamin B6. We don't know how much though, or how long one has to be deficient in vitamin B6 to produce a noticeable effect, or if some people's genetic make-up makes them more susceptible to such issues. As we accumulate more research on neurotransmitters, you should expect to hear more about the role of diet, but most researchers in the field would probably assert that it would be a bit of a stretch to conclude that serious mental problems are going to be resolved by taking a vitamin.
Genetics is proving to be an area that is shedding a great deal of light on psychology. Genetics is indeed important. As children, how many of us were told we looked or acted just like our father or mother? Identical twins have shed even more light on the role of genetics. Consider the famous case of the "Jim twins." XXXXX XXXXX and James Springer were born identical twins and then adopted out to different families 37 days after birth. They had no contact until they were reunited 38 years later. As boys, they both had dogs with the same name ("Toy"), and named their sons James Allan (one actually spelled the name "Alan" with one "l"). This may indeed be chalked up to coincidence, but what happens when it is noted that they both had first wives named "Linda" and second wives named "Betty," had part-time sheriff positions, had pale blue Chevrolets that they drove to Pas Grille beach in Florida for family vacations, were fingernail biters, and left love notes for their wives around the house? (Segal, 2000) Clearly, the role of genetics is not to be dismissed.
Bipolar disorder produces episodes of overwhelming and pervasive feelings of sorrow quite similar to major depressive disorders as well as other episodes of mania. While in the manic stage, the individual may exhibit rapid speech and thinking, delusions of grandeur, and engage in impulsive and often quite risky behaviors. Researchers studying the causes of bipolar disorders believe that problems with certain areas of the brain may cause episodes. Studies have also found evidence for genetics to play a role in bipolar disorder. Some individuals suffer the symptoms of depression in the winter months only. This is called seasonal affective disorder.
Schizophrenia is a seriously debilitating disorder that afflicts about 1% of the adult population. Common symptoms include disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotions, and behavior. Despite all the attention it has received from researchers, no one is completely certain what causes it. Biological theories focus on genetics/heredity, neurotransmitter problems (primarily dopamine), and abnormalities within the structure of the brain. Psychological theories suspect that stress is a cause in the initial episodes as well as relapse. Researchers have also suspected that highly expressed emotionality in the family may be related to symptoms becoming worse.
The Healthy Life and Perception, Cognition, and Memory
Most of us are well aware of how losses, frustrations, hassles, disappointments, and so on, can lead to the feeling of stress. It should be remembered that even positive events like marriage or the birth of a child cause stress as well. Change causes stress. Individuals may also differ in the amount of stress that they can handle.
Stress affects the body. It causes bodily changes such as higher blood pressure, and increased heart rate and hormone levels. Prolonged stress hinders the ability of the body to sleep and the functioning of the immune system. It leaves the body more susceptible to a host of diseases and heart problems. Meditation and getting plenty of exercise are two practical ways of helping the body avoid stress-related health issues.
Stress management is an area that has received a great deal of attention in our culture. Students taking this class are often feeling a degree of stress with all of the demands that family, work, school, and so on, make on a person. Dealing with this effectively will make the class a smoother experience. To do this, students will want to utilize emotion-focused coping strategies such as reminding oneself to keep things in perspective, and problem-focused coping strategies like taking direct action to deal with the stressor (e.g. setting and keeping to a balanced study schedule).
Does deep breathing really help a person relax? Well, let's find out. Take a moment and close your eyes. Notice how your body feels. When you have a good sense of how your body feels, take three, long, slow, deep breaths. Take the kind of breaths that you can feel pushing down into your hips and up into both of your shoulders. Now take another check of how your body feels. It is only three breaths, but do you feel at least a bit more relaxed?
Drugs will impact the central nervous system in a variety of ways. Depressants (also known as "downers") are drugs that depress the central nervous system. Individuals on depressants will experience relaxation. If taken at sufficient levels, they will experience sedation and could possibly lose consciousness. The most common depressants are barbiturates, anti-anxiety drugs, and alcohol. Some people are surprised that alcohol is a depressant, but it does depress the central nervous system and in a large enough quantity, it can lead to death. Alcohol may also lead to damage in the teenager's brain beyond what it does to adults.
Stimulants such as nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines, and cocaine all increase the overall activity and responsiveness of the central nervous system. Caffeine is the world's most widely used drug. Nicotine not only affects the smokers, but the bystanders who breathe it second-hand, possibly even causing breast cancer (Ritter, 2006). Smoking while pregnant has been linked to ADHD in children (Taner, 2006). Nicotine is considered the single most preventable cause of death in the U.S. In India, one in five men will die from smoking (Time, 2008).
Another stimulants that quickly addicts the user is cocaine. This drug is also well known for its potential for physical damage and psychological dependence.
Opiates include drugs such as morphine and heroin, numb the senses, and are used to relieve pain. They produce their effect by mimicking the brain's own natural painkillers, called endorphins, and they are highly addictive.
Hallucinogens include LSD and marijuana. They produce sensory distortions, including visual, auditory, or kinesthetic hallucinations. Negative consequences of marijuana include impaired memory, attention, and learning. Marijuana has also been shown to help treat glaucoma and to alleviate the nausea associated with chemotherapy. It remains a highly controversial drug
Learning and Motivation
Classical conditioning is all around you. Prejudices, phobias, advertising influences, and politicians' messages are all examples of classical conditioning. How does this work? In the case of advertising, you may note that advertisers will often pay huge amounts of money to athletes and celebrities to advertise products. As a public figure, they have certain qualities that we associate with them. By repeatedly pairing the athlete/celebrity (unconditioned stimulus) with the product (neutral stimulus), people begin to associate the qualities of the celebrity/athlete with the product. When this is done, the product becomes a conditioned stimulus which produces a conditioned response.
Does this really work? Well, how much money are celebrities getting for endorsements these days? How much celebrities know about politics is debatable, yet politicians have long been appearing on the campaign trail with celebrities. It is the same principle. Stand side-by-side with the celebrity enough and the two are associated together. Of course, there is a downside to this for the celebrity as well. If the politician shows himself or herself to be corrupt or the product of advertisers to be of poor quality, the negative qualities can be turned around and associated with the celebrity.
Operant conditioning is when reinforcement (rewards) and punishments are used to teach voluntary behaviors. Its most famous practitioner was B.F. Skinner.
Students often get confused between classical and operant conditioning. You should remember that in classical conditioning, you are "taught" without ever really doing anything. The conditioning takes place involuntarily. In operant conditioning, the process is more voluntary. You make specific choices and the consequences of those choices lay the groundwork of the learning. It is a powerful tool and used by animal trainers.
Operant conditioning can also factor into the development of prejudice. Suppose someone makes a slightly racist comment. If others laugh or in some way show they approve of the comment, then the person who made the remark is more likely to make similar comments in the future - they were reinforced for it.
Observational learning theory is the theory that leads parents to be concerned about all television violence that children see. If a child is watching their favorite superhero on television, they may be engaged in what Bandura calls observational learning. The child is attending to the television (its flashy colors, propensity for movement and action, and engaging music draw many children in), and they are already doing the first stage in the process (paying attention). The second stage is remembering the behavior they see. This may occur naturally, but with the repeating of episodes and/or commercialization of the hero, it is even more likely (how many things can you find in the store with Spiderman on it? How many of these items are for elementary school children? How many for preschoolers? Note: The first two Spiderman movies were rated PG-13). The third process is actually being able to do the behavior (children won't be able to fly like Superman, have Batman's gadgets, or Spiderman's web, but how do these superheroes solve their problems?). The fourth process is deciding if they want to repeat the behavior based on what they saw happen to the model (reinforced or punished). Now superheroes have admirable qualities as well, but at what age are children able to discern these? Lionel Tate was 13 when he killed a girl imitating "pro-wrestlers."
Psychologists use the observational learning theory to caution parents to use good judgement about what they allow their children to be exposed to. This goes beyond television (which does indeed have many wonderful programs on it). Columbine murderers XXXXX XXXXX and Dylan Klebold as well as 14-year-old school shooter Michael Carneal certainly had issues, but did playing the violent video games Doom & Quake help things? Another study raises concerns about the effects of violent music.
There are three major dimensions to communication: verbal, non-verbal, and contextual. The verbal dimension is the words themselves but also the paralanguage. Paralanguage is the way the words are spoken. Thus, one person could say to another "I want to go home" and depending on the way it is said, it could mean that the person is angry, sad, tired, being sarcastic/wants to stay, and so on. The non-verbal dimension of communication is things like eye contact, facial expressions, kinesics (body language and gestures) and proxemics (the way people use space in communicating). The contextual dimension is the background or setting in which the communication occurs. We need to pay particular attention to the non-verbal dimension as, according to the text, over half of the overall message and 90% of the emotional content comes via the nonverbal dimension. Students may note how comedians use these three dimensions to create humor.
As important as communication is, barriers to it remain. The effective communicator will eliminate or minimize these. They can include physical distractions, selective perception, semantic problems, mixed messages, lack of feedback, status differences, and communication overload. The ability to give effective feedback is especially important for people who aspire to move up within an organization. Good listening skills in general and being a good active listener in particular can be a great asset as well.
There are five main strategies for resolving a conflict: avoidance, accommodation, compromise, authoritative command, and collaboration. It may surprise some to see avoidance listed, but under certain conditions, it is indeed effective. The situation would have to be one in which things will 'blow over" with time and patience. An example might be in the case where one person is a bit of a "hothead" (always blowing up at something). Others may learn not to get "into it" with this person as it will all blow over and he or she will be off on the next thing. If one avoids a situation out of a feeling of weakness or inability to effectively assert himself or herself, avoidance will not be a productive conflict resolution strategy as it will only postpone the problem, often allowing it to grow bigger.
The ability to be effective in dealing with a conflict usually requires that the individual have a degree of assertiveness without crossing over into aggressiveness. Overly-aggressive people will perhaps "win the battle" but their lack of emotional intelligence generally leaves them "losing the war." Overly-aggressive people will also often find that individuals won't "take them on" out in the "open," but rather, will subtly seek to undermine them behind their back.
Workplace motivation is exactly what it appears to be - how to get people motivated at work. It includes theories such as positive and negative reinforcement and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, but goes beyond these as well. One of these theories that applies strictly to workplace motivation deals with how things like company policies, salary, and co-workers can truly lead to dissatisfaction with a job. On the other hand, things such as achievement, growth, responsibility, and even the work itself can motivate a person. This is Herzberg's two-factor theory and despite its critics, it is still quite popular.
Another theory holds that people are best motivated when the demands of the job best match their personality. This is a very popular theory frequently used by career counselors. Other theories look at the balance between what a person puts into the workplace and what he or she gets out of it (equity theory), a person's goals (goal setting theory), and his or her feelings of self-efficacy (self-efficacy theory).
Trait theories contend that personality consists of relatively stable and consistent characteristics. The "Big 5" (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) are scales that trait theorists use to describe individuals. This may reflect a biologically-based set of universal human personality characteristics. They are also believed to be relatively stable after age 30, but it doesn't mean they are "carved in stone."
There are many misconceptions about traits though. Take the Big Five trait of extraversion, for example. The extraversion trait consists of a spectrum between highly-extraverted on one end and highly-introverted on the other. Some people mistakenly assume that it is better to be extraverted and that introverts are shy. While introverts MAY be shy, it isn't a forgone conclusion. Introverts are people who tend to be focused more on their internal world while an extravert's attention flows outward. Extraverts do tend to be better communicators and are more adept at processing emotions rather than letting things "build up," but on the other hand, introverts are better at relying on their internal world for guidance and usually can handle working for a long time on a single project (extraverts tend to prefer variety and action). No trait is better than another, though depending on the circumstances, one may hold certain advantages over the other. Thus, certain traits are preferable in certain occupations. There are applications to trait theory in relationships as well. Individuals often seek wholeness by marrying a person with opposite traits. This can help with the skills a certain trait may be a bit short on, but it can also cause a bit of conflict. For example, suppose an extravert and introvert are married and both need to "recharge their batteries." Well, the extravert is probably going to want to go out for a "night on the town" while the introvert will prefer to spend a quiet night at home.
The psychoanalytic approach to personality was founded by Sigmund Freud. This theory strongly believed in the power of the unconscious mind. To Freud, the mind (or psyche) functioned on three levels: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. In Freud's theory of personality, there were also three parts: the id, ego, and superego. The ego struggles to meet the demands of the id and superego, and that isn't always so easy. The id seeks pleasure and immediate gratification. The superego is the voice of morality. When the ego has trouble meeting the demands of both the id and superego, the individual may experience anxiety. To deal with the anxiety, the ego may employ defense mechanisms.
Go through this tutorial that explains defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are the ego's way of warding off anxiety. It entails warding off the anxiety by distorting reality.
This tutorial requires no audio. Please skip slide #8 and #11.
Carl Jung was at one point considered to be Freud's successor when Freud retired. Jung was an independent thinker though and while he agreed with Freud on many things, he thought Freud overemphasized the role of sex and aggression in the unconscious at the exclusion of spiritual and positive forces. Jung studied a wide range of things including astrology and the Tibetan Book of the Dead. He had a near-death experience, labeled and developed three of the four types used now in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and was well versed in mythology. Still, what Jung is probably most famous for is his work with dreams - work for which he still has many fans today. Surprisingly, Jung was not a big fan of theories, at one point saying: "Theories in psychology are the very devil. It is true that we need certain points of view for orienting and heuristic value, but they should always be regarded as more auxiliary concepts that can be laid aside at any time." (Jung, 1964, p. 7)
Humanistic theories are focused on individuals' internal experiences. These internal thoughts and feelings create an individual's self-concept. The two major theorists are XXXXX XXXXX and Abraham Maslow. Rogers emphasized the concepts of self-esteem and self-concept. He believed that low self-esteem resulted from a generally poor congruence between the individual's self-concept and life experiences. For a child to reach his or her full potential, he or she needs to be raised in an atmosphere of unconditional positive regard. This unconditional positive regard means that the child is raised in an environment of being accepted no matter what he or she does. It doesn't mean that a child has a license to do whatever he or she wants to though. Maslow emphasized that a basic goodness was a part of human nature and that individuals had an innate drive towards self-actualization.
Without the leadership of Abraham Lincoln, what would the United States look like today? Fortunately, we don't have to answer that question. His leadership was vital to preserving the union. Yet, what exactly is leadership? Are leaders born (Great Person Theory) or are they a function of the situation? Businesses spend a great deal of time and money on leadership training. It would all be a waste if leaders need to be born with the traits necessary for success. There is no universally agreed upon definition of leadership. There is more agreement on what traits great leaders have. Among other things, great leaders possess self-confidence, energy/drive, emotional intelligence, and integrity. Still, many note the relationship between leadership and skills individuals are born with, but others would argue that leadership is at least in part a function of situation and a man like Lincoln might not rise to as high an office in today's society.
If rumors are correct, then when the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychological Association comes out, the public will be hearing a great deal more about personality disorders. It seems that some professionals
If rumors are correct, then when the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychological Association comes out, the public will be hearing a great deal more about personality disorders. It seems that some professionals are feeling that personality disorders are under-diagnosed and this needs to be addressed. It may turn out that there is a great deal more screening for personality disorders when psychologists go about making their diagnoses. Lester (2007) reported that some 65% of people who abuse drugs also have a personality disorder. There are many types of personality disorders: antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) display egocentrism, a lack of guilt, impulsivity, and superficial charm. (Would Laci Peterson's killer fit this description?) Some researchers are investigating a defect in brain waves and arousal patterns. Other theories for its cause look at genetic inheritance and disturbed family relationships. Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are known for an instability in both their mood and relationships, impulsivity, and issues with self-image. Individuals with borderline personality disorder quite frequently have a childhood of emotional depravation, and physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Avoidant personality disorders are characterized by social inhibition and feelings of inadequacy. These people are hypersensitive to criticism. Individuals with dependent personality disorder show a great need to be taken care of. They are "clingy" and rather submissive. Symptoms of histrionic personality disorders are excessive attention-seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. A person with a narcissistic personality disorder is very needy for others' admiration. They lack empathy and are known to display rather grandiose behavior.
Groups and Organizational Psychology
Committees or teams are types of groups. In the business world, there are distinct advantages to working in this type of group. A properly composed group will bring together a variety of skills and experiences. This can help the group avoid the type of blunders an individual might make left on his or her own. A group can feed off of the energy of its members and no one member (theoretically) has to carry the entire load. Groups also may help meet some of the social needs of its members. Many members of the class may have some experience serving on teams/committees at their place of employment. No doubt some have found this a positive and productive experience while others find their experience a colossal waste of time. While groups have a great potential, they can also have problems should they be poorly comprised or misapplied. There is a tendency in groups to work less diligently than one would by himself or herself because the task is the responsibility of the group rather than the individual (social loafing). Groups can also exert an overt or covert pressure to fit in and thus, members may feel inhibited or try to conform, which inhibits the very creativity the group was formed to generate. Following Stephen Covey's "seven habits of highly effective people" is a good way for a group to maximize its potential. Covey lists these habits as:
1. "Be proactive"2. "Begin with the end in mind"3. "Put first things first"4. "Think win-win"5. "Seek first to understand, then to be understood"6. "Synergize"7. "Sharpen the saw"
Groups would do well to have a mission statement to give them direction. Groups that are comprised of members with a variety of applicable talents, that are not too large or too small, that follow Covey's seven habits, and that adhere to their mission statement, have a good probably of being productive.
It shouldn't be a surprise that groups sometimes have conflict. We learned in our study of personality and the "Big 5" personality traits that people differ. The Big 5 personality traits note how there are 5 major traits that can be used to describe personality. As a group will be comprised of members who are at various points on these spectrums (i.e. the Big 5 trait of extraversion is actually a spectrum between highly-extroverted on one end to highly-introverted on the other end), it would not be uncommon for individuals at opposite ends to have some disagreements. We also learned in our studies of personality, that when individuals feel a degree of anxiety, they may employ defense mechanisms to diminish it. Among other things, this may include the use of projection and thus, the individual starts to see things in others that they haven't come to terms within himself or herself. In addition to personality conflicts, the text notes that "defensive communication patterns," "conflicts of interest," a "competitive culture," "self-centered or individualistic roles," and "imbalanced power" are sources of conflict as well. Conflict could break out in some form and the group's ability to function productively is impaired.Many people don't consider it such, but conflicts can be opportunities. Individuals who can manage the conflict without getting pulled into negative interactions often ultimately end up being viewed in a positive light and may become a person sought out should conflicts arise in the future. Some ways of resolving conflict are forcing and competing, avoiding and accommodating, and compromising and collaborating. It shouldn't be forgotten that conflict handled properly can bring about positive things as well. Conflict can help a group avoid the problems of groupthink. Conflict can also get things "out in the open" where they can be resolved. Conflicts can also spur creativity and bring out the best in those involved in the conflict and/or other members of the group.
Attraction is influenced heavily by physical attractiveness, proximity, and similarity. The emphasis our culture puts on being physically attractive speaks volumes for this component. Proximity influences things as well too. The nearer you live or work with someone, the more likely you will like the person. Similarity is important too. We like people who have similar backgrounds, interests, attitudes, and so on (need compatibility), as well as people who provide important resources (need complimentarity).
One of the reasons that romances can spring up at work is that two of the three factors in attraction are frequently present. The people are already in the same proximity. They also have some things in common - the organization. The extent that the organization brings people of similar educational levels, interests, backgrounds, and so on, would only add to the similarity component. Should the individuals feel a physical attraction to each other, a romance can bloom.
In dealing with interpersonal relations, we should also be sure to cover the problem of aggression. Is aggression a learned behavior or are there genetic pieces to it? Psychologists can debate the cause of aggression, but it remains a problem in the United States. Looking at ways to resolve anger, psychologists look to improve communication skills and develop responses that are essentially the opposite of aggression (e.g. making a joke). Other ways are to visualize aggravating situations and see yourself staying calm or challenging yourself by seeking out situations that produce frustration and work towards handling it more productively.
Freud brought sexuality out of the repressive mores of the Victorian era and into the open. Freud felt humans have an innate sex drive (libido) and this influenced a person's psychological functioning. Since the times of Freud, psychologists have begun to study sexual behavior and have learned a great deal. For instance, psychologists have noted that alcohol, drugs, illness, fatigue, depression, age, and diet can impact an individual's interest in sex as well as his or her ability to perform sexually.Sex may seem easy and quite natural to most individuals, but dysfunction exists as well. Viagra has brought erectile dysfunction out into the public domain, but there are also disorders such as frigidity, premature ejaculation, and dysapareunia. Sexual disorders can be quite frustrating and demoralizing, especially in a culture that highlights sexuality.
Attributions are statements that are designed to explain why people behave as they do. The basic question is whether their actions are due to internal dispositions (derived from their own internal traits and motives) or external situations (derived from the environment or situation). The two main attributional errors that people make are the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias. The fundamental attribution error is when a person overestimates internal, personality influences and underestimates external influences when judging the behavior of others. The self-serving bias is when a person finds positive reasons to explain his or her own behavior, but attributes negative behaviors and outcomes to external causes.Prejudice is a generally negative attitude (i.e. it has cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements) that is directed at a person or group of people solely because of their membership in a specific group. Discrimination and prejudice are NOT the same thing. Discrimination is the behavioral component of prejudice. Prejudice can be learned via classical and operant conditioning and social learning. Prejudice can also be acquired through cognitive processes (in-group favoritism, out-group negativity, out-group homogeneity effect, and blaming the victim), economic and political competition, and displaced aggression. Prejudice can be reduced through cooperation, superordinate goals, increased contact, cognitive retraining, and cognitive dissonance.
Attitudes are learned predispositions to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally (the three components of an attitude) to a particular object. How attitudes are formed and maintained has been an area of interest to psychologists. Politicians have found Americans to often have very strong attitudes about certain "hot button" topics such as abortion, gun control, gay marriage, environmental issues, federal spending, and so on. How do these attitudes come about? Well, it seems that while there seems to be a degree of genetic factors involved in learned attitudes, the vast majority seems to be learned. Advertisers have capitalized on this and try diligently to promote loyalty towards their products. Classical, instrumental, and operant conditioning have a role in the formation of attitudes as well as experiential learning, socialization learning, and unconscious motivations. So what can people do should they find an individual with a poor attitude in their department or on their team? Psychologists advocate the use of persuasion. There are a number of techniques of persuasion. The ones covered in this course are reciprocity, consistency, social proof, authority, the liking principle, and scarcity. Persuasion is more likely to be effective when the other person doesn't feel that someone is trying to persuade them into something, when the person doing the persuasion is perceived as an expert, and when there are strong emotional ties towards making the change. Another way you can change an attitude is to produce a discrepancy between the other individual's attitude or their attitude and their behavior; they will feel a tension. This then results in a compulsion to resolve it by altering the attitude. This is called cognitive dissonance.
Conformity is when people alter their behavior due to real or imagined pressure from others. The Asch conformity experiments show just how real this phenomenon is. When people conform, it is due to the normative social influence, informational social influence, or the power of reference groups. The normative social influence is the need for approval and acceptance. The informational social influence is when we act out of a need for more information. When we seek to match the behavior of those they admire, we are displaying the power of reference groups.
Obedience is giving in to a command from another. The Milgram obedience experiments showed how people will follow orders even when another person is being physically threatened or even injured. There were several factors in the participant's obedience in the Milgram experiments. Two of the most important were the assignment of responsibility and the presence of disobedient models.
Test I need help on next time limit for it 2.45 hours.. Willing to pay a bit more money for this has to be done by the 25th so need to get you in that time slot
How about tomorrow, 2/24, @12:00 noon your time?
i figure since test a lot more time.. Better chance of a right answer LOL
Which of the following is considered to be the cause of obesity?
The process of taking in information about the world through the five senses is called, _____________, whereas the perceiver's internal, cognitive process of interpreting sensory input based on perception is referred to as _____________.
The process of changing behavior through practice or the acquisition of knowledge is referred to as _________.
Which of the following statements are correct regarding conflict resolution?
Which of the following statements is true regarding projective and objective personality tests?
(Points: 4) Projective tests are scientifically rigorous instruments whereas objective tests are questioned for scientific rigor. Objective tests are scientifically rigorous instruments whereas projective tests are questioned for scientific rigor. Projective tests include the MMPI; Objective tests include the Rorschach and TAT. There is no difference between projective and objective tests. 10. TCO 7The Jungian archetype that represents the negative, unconscious part of the psyche is referred to as the __________. (Points: 4) Self Shadow Anima MBTI
1. TCO 7Which theory of management believes that employees need direction, incentives, and motivation? (Points: 4) Theory W Theory X Theory Y Theory Z 2. TCO 7Moses obeys the "golden rule" (treat others as you expect to be treated) and attempts to conform to expectations of good behavior. Which of the following of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development is Moses MOST LIKELY operating at? (Points: 4) Preconventional Conventional Semi-Conventional Post-conventional 3. TCO 7 A lack of conscience or sense of wrongdoing are characteristic of someone _____. (Points: 4) in the manic phase of a bipolar disorder with schizophrenia in remission with a narcissistic personality disorder with an antisocial personality disorder 4. TCO 8These are special kinds of primary groups that, particularly during adolescence, exert significant influence on individual development. (Points: 4) peer group secondary groups task groups teams 5. TCO 8According to Tuckman, this is the point at which agreement is reached about how the group will operate. (Points: 4) storming norming forming performing 6. TCO 8Which of the following statements about teams is true? (Points: 4) Members have common characteristics. Members exist largely independent of each other. The group may or may not have a leader. Members' roles are essential to the team's function. 7. TCO 9This field examines human behavior in the workplace by exploring the relationship among the individual, the organization, and the environment. (Points: 4) Social Psychology Organizational Psychology Forensic Psychology all of the above 8. TCO 8According to your text, which of the following is NOT a barrier to communication during community building? (Points: 4) ideology theology expectations stereotypes 9. TCO 8A team member who remains silent about a disagreement instead of risking an argument is engaging in which type of conflict management strategy? (Points: 4) Forcing and competing Avoiding and accommodating Compromising and collaborating Integrating differences 10. TCO 9This type of leader exhibits idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. (Points: 4) Transformational leaders Situational leaders Transactional leaders Charismatic leaders 11. TCO 9__________ suggests that employees are motivated by the desire to avoid adverse consequences, and _______ suggests that employees are motivated by the potential for reward. (Points: 4) Theory X; Theory Y Theory X; Theory Z Theory Y; Theory Z Theory Z; Theory X
1. TCO 9Steven is conducting a performance evaluation of an employee with whom he has had issues with in the past. Steven is likely to overlook the employee's positive qualities, even if they far outweigh the negative ones. This is referred to as: (Points: 4) the horn effect the halo effect organizational socialization job design 2. TCO 10 Which of the following does NOT play a role in the sexual response cycle? (Points: 4) Testosterone Estrogen Progestogen Pheromones 3. TCO 10If in the spirit of social psychology research, you try to increase how attractive you are to a person you find attractive, you should _______________. (Points: 4) avoid them, play hard-to-get. become as opposite to them as possible as opposites attract. try to become as similar to them as possible. both a and b. 4. TCO 10Juan had a great year throwing for a major league football team. His won lost record was 15 wins and 2 losses. He considered himself a talented quarterback and signed a big contract with another team. His won lost record the next season was 5 wins and 12 losses. He said this was because of the his receivers were doing a terrible job. Juan is committing ________________. (Points: 4) saliency bias attribution ingroup favoritism self-serving bias 5. TCO 10Janet considered herself attractive. She was Prom queen at her high school and got a lot of attention from the boys in school. When she moved to a very large state college, she began receiving little attention from boys at all. She said this was because they were all a bunch of "losers" Janet is committing ____________________. (Points: 4) the saliency bias an attribution error ingroup favoritism the self-serving bias 6. TCO 10Which statement BEST summarizes how stereotyping differs from prejudice? (Points: 4) Prejudice is worse than stereotyping. Prejudice differs from general stereotyping in that the person with the stereotype actively responds according to their prejudice. Prejudice differs from general stereotyping in that the person with the prejudicial attitude actively responds according to their stereotypes. None of the above 7. TCO 10Jess believes that all people who have tattoos use illegal drugs. This is an example of: (Points: 4) salient attribution error stereotyping discrimination cognitive dissonance 8. TCO 10When isolated groups whose members are similar in background and lack clear rules for decision making, they become susceptible to __________. (Points: 4) groupthink group polarization deindividuation group roles conflict
Suppose you wanted to determine whether the use of cell phones causes car accidents. Discuss the major limitations and benefits of using the following research methods: naturalistic observation, survey, case study, and experiment. (Points: 10)2. Define drug addiction, drug tolerance, and psychological addiction. Which is worse and why: psychological dependence on drugs or physical dependence? (Points: 10)3. Imagine that you are a psychologist who wants to help a father increase his son's compliance with mowing the backyard without being reminded. Develop a plan using the operant conditioning techniques. Your answer needs to give examples of ALL THREE: positive and negative reinforcement AND punishment. (Points: 10)4. The principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning and observational learning are involved in the acquisition of prejudice. Pick two of those three learning theories and describe how they play a role in the acquisition of a prejudice. (Points: 10)5. Explain persuasion, conformity, compliance, and obedience. Make sure you not only define the social influence concepts, but also give an example of the use of each. (Points: 10)
1. scientific study of mental processes, behavior, and the relation between the two.
2. clinical or counseling
3. A negative correlation indicates that the two variables move in opposite directions and its coefficient will be a number less than 0.
5. sample bias
6. All of the above
8. free will versus determinism
9. occipital lobe
10. Parkinson's disease; memory loss
11. Multiple Personality Disorder (DID)
1. Stage 4
3. A & B
5. all of the above
6. generalized anxiety disorder
7. Bottom-up processing; top-down processing
8. rehearsal; short-term memory
10. representativeness heuristic
1. assimilation; accommodation
2. Kim knows and manages her emotions well.
3. expectancy, valence, and instrumentals
4. A subject will respond to a stimulus with a response that has a positive consequence.
6. Conditioned Response (CR)
7. the dog treat
9. Objective tests are scientifically rigorous instruments whereas projective tests are questioned for scientific rigor.
1. Theory X
3. with an antisocial personality disorder
4. peer group
6. Members' roles are essential to the team's function.
7. Organizational Psychology
9. Avoiding and accommodating
10. Transformational leaders
11. Theory X; Theory Y
1. the horn effect
3. try to become as similar to them as possible.
4. self-serving bias
5. the self-serving bias
6. Prejudice differs from general stereotyping in that the person with the prejudicial attitude actively responds according to their stereotypes.
1.Suppose you wanted to determine whether the use of cell phones causes car accidents. Discuss the major limitations and benefits of using the following research methods: naturalistic observation, survey, case study, and experiment.
Natural observation would afford the researcher real-life observation of the cell phone users and would provide realistic results as to how cell phones affect driving. However, this method would entail the use of many observers of many real-life subjects and would be costly and time-consuming. The survey method could reach a large number of subject relatively easily and provide a large amount of data on the topic. However, the subjects might tend to be biased in their responses about how they their use of cell phones and driving. The case study method could provide detailed information on an individual about cell phone usage and driving, but in would require considerable amount of time and the results would only be indicitive of an individual case. The experimental method would be scientific and contolled and responses could be carefully monitored. However, the subjects might responsed differently than in real life, knowing that they subjects of an experiment.
2. Drug addition is a phsysiological dependence on a substance, usually resulting from extended use. This is when the body itself is dependent on the substance. Drug tolerance is the phenomena of needing more and more of a substance to achieve the same or similar effects. Psychological addiction involves the belief that the effects of a substance are need to enable one to function in a desired manner. This is the case of the person being mentally but not physically depent on a substance. Psychological addiction is worse because the user most reorder his/her thinking processes to conquer it. Such addiction is prone to recur if the victim doesn't remain aware of signs and signals of relapse, and be continually proactive in addressing them.
3. Positive enforcement would be rewarding the son with money, privileges, or praise for mowing the yard. Such enforcement would be the stimulus that would acheive the desired response of the son mowing the yard. Negative reinforcement would entail the removal of a stimulus for mowing the yard. For example, the father might reduce the time the son had been grounded. Punishment would be inflicting a negative stimulus, such as giving no allowance for the week if the yard is not mowed.
4. Prejudice can be developed through operant conditioning when one's expressions of predjudice are rewarded by family, peer groups, etc. If a person makes an ethic slur or tells a racial joke and associates laugh and respond positively then the prejudical attitude is perceived as O.K. The behavoir is thus enforced and the predudice is strengthened. Observational learning in developing prejdice involves seeing others being accepted for it. The observer will react to the way the model is treated and mimic the model's behavior. When the model's pejudicial behavior is rewarded, the observer is more likely to reproduce the rewarded behavior.
5. Persuasion involves the influence that the group can exert on memebers of the group to establish the norms and values of the group. Conformity within a group entails members changing their attitudes and beliefs in order to match those of others within the group.compliance to occur within groups, one must adapt his/her actions to another's wishes or rules. A person that conforms must have a disposition that allows him/her to yield to others. Compliance occurs within groups Occurs when one must adapt his/her actions to another's wishes or rules. Performing a task when asked is an example of compliance. Obedience entails following the rules and beliefs of the group as a whole. In is the act of "buying into'' the group and what it represents.
Nice A lot more time given.. was that better ? lol no rush right? lol
will se what i get and get back to you .. I have a 70 in class so far.. so if i get an A or so on this test i will pas with a 75 or so
I had to resubmit the final answers. Glad you got them in time. If you score 225 or better than should be an 'A'. Feel pretty confident you should get that.
Wow check this out see below This is from week 7 quiz ..
Now keep in mind its the same question on the FINAl.. and of course the best answer is what the teacher "COPIES/PASTS from the text".. so I did that for the answer and wote what you had under so it would count as a seperate analysis of the questions vs a direct book answer.
They have submitted the FINAL, all of it that is to the Academic Integrity Committee. Plagiarism detection software has found a match.
Wow all the essay question I did copy from the quizes.. and they what she wrote.. as everything else was a question with a b c or d . This is crazy, wouldn't most people use there quizes and get the answer especially if they were wrong? and the teacher wrote or COPY/PASTED" her responses as the right ones?
the Final did say OPEN BOOk and all Notes could be used. What a load of crap..
Explain two of the following: persuasion, conformity, compliance, and obedience. Make sure you not only define the social influence concepts, but also give an example of the use of each.
Persuasion occurs through attempts to change someone's mind about a particular existing attitude. It tends to be more effective as an attitude-changing tool when one or more conditions are met, including invisibility of the persuasive attempts, perceived expertise, and emotional associations. Conformity occurs when people change their behavior to conform to group norms. For example, groups of friends may dress alike and wear their hair in the same style; people who work in cubicle environments tend to speak in lower voices than they normally do; and most people tip their servers in restaurants. Factors that influence an individual's conformity to group standards include: Cohesiveness, or how attracted to a group a person is; The size of the group;The presence of allies and social support within the group. Compliance is different from conformity because conformity does not place any direct pressure on the individual. People conform because they want to be more like others in the group. On the other hand, compliance results from pressure on a person to fulfill a request. It can come in a very simple form, such as saying "yes" to a favor asked by a friend or voting for a politician who shakes your hand and asks for your vote. However, it can also have more unpleasant aspects and can involve greater pressure. For example, salespeople often use high-pressure techniques to sell products and services. Obedience is a conscious choice to obey an order or set of orders. It is distinguished from compliance, which is agreement with a request, rather than an order. Ordering people to do something is the simplest, most direct technique for influencing their behavior. Military officers, sports coaches, parents, and supervisors all expect obedience and compliance when they tell a subordinate, player, child, or employee to do something. Usually, the order-giver has power over the subordinate and can reward obedience or punish resistance.
Yes, so what does mean as far as your grade? Do you have to retake the final or what?
they are "investigating" it.. If i don't win I FAIl the whole course ..redo
but don't you think its a bit insain to cite every little thing from the book or previous quizes answers? all 4 essay questions are under review.. retarted
Yeah, it does seem strange. Wish you the best of luck.
Very sorry to hear that. If you need any help when you retake the course, let me know.
I see that your first thread is locked and no longer viewable. Have requested that this one be also.