1) After submitting her completed dissertation to her committee, the chair of the department accused Becky of plagiarism. This was an allegation that Becky:
A) falsified the results of her data.
B) copied, or actually stole the credit for someone else's work.
C) failed to submit her dissertation in the appropriate form.
D) violated the confidentiality and trust of the sample used in her research.
2) The first step in the scientific research method is ________.
A) formulating a hypothesis B) reviewing the literature C) selecting a topic D) defining the problem
3) Max Weber stressed the notion that sociological research should be "value free." This means that sociologists should not:
A) study social values. B) let personal values affect their research. C) be social critics. D) receive pay for their research work.
4) Cynthia is a sociologist employed at Computer Technology, Inc., developing "user-centered designs." She would be considered a[n] ________ sociologist.
A) clinical B) reformist C) applied D) basic or pure
5) Leo is developing a profile of first generation Italian-Americans who lived in New York City in the 1920s. He is examining the jobs they held, their income, level of education, gender, age, and how long they were in America before becoming citizens. Sociologically, Leo is examining the _______ of the individuals in his study.
A) social imperative B) social class differences C) social location D) stratification levels
6) The term that stresses the social contexts in which people live and how those contexts influence their lives is ________.
A) the social imperative B) the sociological perspective C) the sociological framework D) social solidarity
7) The most power age group is those who are aged:
A) 70 and higher B) 45-55 C) 55-70 D) 30-45
8) Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a ________ theorist and John would be seen as a ________ theorist.
A) functionalist; symbolic interactionist B) conflict; functionalist C) symbolic interactionist; functionalist D) functionalist; conflict
9) Herbert Spencer believed that societies evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capable and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. Spencer referred to this process as ________.
A) positivism B) the industrialization of society C) social egalitarianism D) the survival of the fittest
10) The social scientist who studied life in both the United States and Great Britain and documented the results of this research in the book Society in America was ________.
A) Herbert Spencer B) Harriet Martineau C) Jane Addams D) Talcott Parsons
11) While the intended consequence of attending college is to obtain an education to prepare for entry into the job market, college also provides a "mate selection market" wherein students may meet prospective marriage partners. This market represents what Merton would describe as a ________.
A) manifest function B) latent function C) latent dysfunction D) manifest dysfunction
12) The first African American to earn a doctorate degree from Harvard University was ________.
A) Booker T. Washington B) W.E.B. DuBois C) XXXXX XXXXX Carver D) Benjamin Anthony Quarles
13) Of the following sets of theorists, the two who viewed society as a type of living organism and are identified as being the earliest structural functionalists are ________.
A) George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley
B) Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer
C) Ernest Burgess and Lewis Coser Jr.
D) Karl Marx and W.I. Thomas
14) Sociologist ________ pointed out that conflict was most likely to develop among people who are in close relationships.
A) Travis Hirschi B) Robert Merton C) Lewis Coser D) Michael Gottfredson
15) A feeling of trust the researcher must establish with his or her respondents is referred to as ________.
A) validity B) randomization C) rapport D) reliability
16) Viewing society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in ________.
A) structural functionalism B) functional analysis C) conflict theory D) symbolic interactionism
17) According to Robert Merton, ________ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions. A) latent dysfunctions B) manifest functions C) latent functions D) manifest dysfunctions
18) The automobile, and the skills needed to drive it, would be an example of ________.
A) cultural adaptation B) mechanical engineering C) nonmaterial culture D) technology
19) Many Americans are sharply divided between the ideologies of the pro-choice and pro-life movements. Some pro-life advocates have engaged in the murder of doctors working in family planning centers and bombing these centers. Such a difference in ideologies is best described as an example of ________.
A) value contradictions B) role conflict C) moral selectivity D) culture wars
20) The coexistence of such values as democracy and equality alongside of sexism and group superiority illustrates the condition of ________.
A) value inconsistency B) value clusters C) value contradiction D) value strain
21) Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. This condition characterizes the difference between ________ and ________.
A) ideal culture; real culture B) real culture; symbolic culture C) material culture; symbolic culture D) unrealistic culture; realistic culture
22) Marshall is examining the culture of the Lenape Indians. He is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape culture fit together including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs. By doing so, Marshall is practicing ________.
A) cultural relativism B) universalism C) cultural leveling D) ethnocentrism
23) Recently, Debbie went on a world tour. When she came back from her tour, she told her friends that she was able to stop at a McDonalds and order a Big Mac in every major city she visited. Her ability to have a Big Mac in all the major cities is an example of ________.
A) cultural bridging B) cultural dissolution C) cultural leveling D) cultural innovation
24) The twelve core values identified in American culture cited in the text were first proposed in 1965 by sociologist ________.
A) Robert Merton B) George Carlin C) Travis Hirschi D) Robin Williams
25) The term, ________, coined by sociologist William Ogburn, is used to describe a situation in which nonmaterial culture changes slower than material culture.
A) cultural lag B) cultural adaptation C) cultural response D) cultural imperatives
26) Which of the following examples of culture does not belong with the other three?
A) folkways B) language C) technology D) gestures
27) Julia is writing a note to one of her classmates. In the note she uses the emoticon :.) and adds OTF to the message. Based on these two expressions, what conclusion can we reach about the content of her note?
A) Julia asked her friend to accompany her to the Sadie Hawkins Dance being held this Friday.
B) Julia was explaining to her friend that "older teens fail" because of their reckless behavior.
C) Julia was upset with her friend and encouraged her to change her behavior.
D) Julia was laughing so hysterically she had tears in her eyes and was rolling on the floor.
28) The ________ in the U.S is an example of the nonmaterial culture never catching up with the material culture.
A) idea of shopping on the internet B) class difference C) value of leisure D) nine-month school year
29) Figure 2.1, "Gestures to Indicate Height, Southern Mexico" demonstrates that to indicate height, an individual must:
A) be skilled in the culture of the society from which the gesture originates.
B) possess basic intelligence and be open minded.
C) have the ability to practice cultural leveling.
D) be born in the society from which the gesture originates.
30) A society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups would be best described as being ________.
A) a society of assimilation B) a noncentrist society C) a centrist society D) a pluralistic society
31) Of the following factors, the one that is most significant in determining what constitutes childhood is ________.
A) the responsibilities a child is given B) the culture of a society C) the child's parents D) the age of a child
32) Someone who ignores societal rules, disregards XXXXX XXXXX and simply pursues their own needs would have a/an ________ according to Freud.
A) enhanced libido B) deformed id C) weak super ego D) neurotic personality
33) Viewing children as "miniature adults" can be traced to ________.
A) the Middle Ages B) the Roman Empire C) the Industrial Revolution D) Colonial America
34) In cases of two identical twins being raised separately, we may find evidence that:
A) environment has little affect on a child's system of moral values.
B) one's orientation to life is largely the result of environment.
C) identical twins will group up sharing similar interests and needs.
D) heredity is the fundamental predictor of behavior.
35) Leo, Matthew, Ryan, Meg, Isabelle, and Francis have progressed through elementary school together, are all in the middle school orchestra, and belong to many of the same after school activities. Together, they constitute a/an ________.
A) peer group B) social group C) aggregate D) category
36) Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the ________ stage.
A) imitation B) generalized C) play D) game
37) According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to take the role of the other:
A) through cognitive recognition. B) during playtime. C) after receiving basic skills training. D) by watching older children.
38) Prior to the research of H.M. Skeels and H. B. Dye, it was believed children reared in orphanages tended to have lower IQs because:
A) of biological reasons..."they were just born that way."
B) institutions, such as orphanages, tend to restrict a child's intellectual development.
C) they lacked the early skills training provided by daycare.
D) their natural parents did not love them.
39) Mead's stage of development that begins in early school years in which the child learns to take multiple roles is the ________ stage.
A) game B) play C) hero worship D) imitation
40) Sociologists generally object to the Freudian view of psychoanalytic theory because:
A) Freud was a sexist and only considered the male as being normal.
B) the concept of the id and libido violate classical social theory.
C) Freud was a psychiatrist and not a sociologist.
D) sociologists reject the view that inborn and subconscious motivations are the primary reasons for behavior.
41) Alice is getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She has picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the beauty shop. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicate to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. According to Goffman, Alice would be engaged in ________.
A) impression control B) impression management C) role management D) face-saving behavior
42) Bill proposes marriage to Jennifer and presents her with a diamond ring. The ring represents ________.
A) a status symbol B) a master status C) symbolic interaction D) an ascribed status
43) Based on Figure 4.3, "The Social Transformation of Society" the steam engine is to the ________ as the ________ is to the postindustrial society.
A) agricultural; microchip B) industrial; microchip C) industrial; plow D) postindustrial; plow
44) Which of the following is least representative of activity that would take place in a bioeconomic society?
A) emphasis on the prevention of disease with less need for treatment
B) developing crops that provide better nutrition as well as antibiotics or contraceptives
C) the cloning of plants, animals, and possibly humans
D) the mass production of industrial goods and conspicuous consumption
45) Research on the "Saints" and the "Roughnecks" by William Chambliss demonstrates that to understand human behavior, sociologists should focus ________.
A) only on social structure B) only on social interaction C) on the psychological aspects of people's lives D) on both macro and micro levels of analysis
46) A[n] ________ consists of people who regularly interact with one another and, usually, share similar values, norms, and expectations.
A) social institution B) group C) aggregate D) neighborhood
47) The emerging bioeconomic society may be traced to 1953 when Crick and Watson identified the ________.
A) importance of instinct in human behavior B) A-1 gene as the cause of alcoholism C) double helix structure of DNA D) pentium microprocessor
48) The sociologist who spent his lifetime studying relations between African Americans and whites in an effort to eliminate social injustice was ________.
A) W. E. B. DuBois B) W. I. Thomas C) George Herbert Mead D) Talcott Parsons
49) Frank is examining the events that have occurred over the past 50 years and how these events have affected his own life. By doing so, Frank is engaged in ________.
A) positivism B) the sociological imagination C) determinism D) the social imperative
50) Many African Americans feel the flag for the Confederate States of America, "the stars and bars", is a sign of racial hatred. States rights advocates view the same flag as being "heritage, not hatred." Such a difference of opinion over the exact same material object is an illustration of which sociological perspective?
A) Functional Analysis B) Conflict Theory C) Structural Analysis D) Symbolic Interactionism