Review Ch. 8 & 9 of the text.
· Complete the Air Pollution Chart in Appendix D and respond to the questions provided at
the bottom of Appendix D. must be in your own words not copy and paste due tuesday 11/4/08
Axia College Material
Air Pollution Chart
After reviewing Ch. 8 and 9 of your text, complete the following table, then respond to the questions that follow:
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Ground-level ozone (O3)
Sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
Note: Some pollutants may not have direct health effects.
Choose one of the following atmospheric issues: air pollution, global warming, ozone depletion, and acid deposition. Then, respond to the following:
- What air pollutants combine and contribute to this issue?
- Briefly describe the health and environmental problems caused by the selected atmospheric issue.
- Provide one key solution to help either reduce the effects or recover from the effects of the selected issue.
|8.2 ||Types and Sources of Air Pollution|
|Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)||Primary||Reddish brown gas|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)||Primary||Colorless, odorless gas|
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)||Primary||Colorless, odorless gas|
|Methane (CH4)||Primary||Colorless, odorless gas|
|Benzene (C6H6)||Primary||Liquid with sweet smell|
| ||Figure 8-6 ||Ozone damage|
A scientist measures the effects of ozone on the growth and productivity of plum trees. Plants exposed to ozone generally exhibit damaged leaves, reduced root growth, and a lowered productivity. Photographed in the San Joaquin Valley, California.
|Ozone (O3)||Secondary||Pale blue gas with irritating odor|
|Chlorine (Cl2)||Primary||Yellow-green gas|
Global Wind Patters Remote Sensing and climate Interactivity Weather Stations Interactivity
|8.1 ||The Atmospheres|
|Define atmosphere and list the major gases comprising the atmosphere.|
Briefly describe the five concentric layers of the atmosphere.
Define the Coriolis effect.
Oxygen and nitrogen are the predominant gases in the atmosphere
, accounting for about 99 percent of dry air (Table 8-1
). Other gases make up the remaining 1 percent. In addition, water vapor and trace amounts of air pollutants are present in the air. The atmosphere becomes less dense as it extends outward into space.
|Table 8-1 ||Composition of the Atmosphere*|
Ulf Merbold, a German space shuttle astronaut, felt differently about the atmosphere after viewing it in space (Figure 8-1
). "For the first time in my life, I saw the horizon as a curved line. It was accentuated by a thin seam of dark blue light-our atmosphere. Obviously, this wasn't the ‘ocean' of air I had been told it was so many times in my life. I was terrified by its fragile appearance." The atmosphere is composed of five concentric layers-the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere (Figure 8-2
). These layers vary in altitude and temperature, depending on the latitude and season.
| ||Figure 8-1 ||The atmosphere|
The "ocean of air" is a thin blue layer that separates the planet from the blackness of space.
The atmosphere performs several valuable ecosystem services
. First, it protects Earth's surface from most of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and x-rays, and from lethal amounts of cosmic rays from space. Life as we know it would cease to exist without this shielding. Second, the atmosphere allows visible light and some infrared radiation to penetrate, both of which warm Earth's surface and the lower atmosphere. This interaction between solar energy and atmosphere is responsible for our weather and climate.
Organisms depend on the atmosphere for existence, but they also maintain and, in certain instances, modify its composition. Atmospheric oxygen is thought to have increased to its present level as a result of billions of years of photosynthesis. A balance between oxygen-producing photosynthesis and oxygen-using cellular respiration maintains the current level of oxygen.
| ||Figure 8-2 ||The atmosphere|
Variations in the amount of solar energy that reaches different areas on Earth cause differences in temperature, which then drive the circulation of the atmosphere. The very warm regions near the equator heat the air, causing it to expand and rise (Figure 8-3
). As this warm air rises, it cools, and then it sinks again. Much of it recirculates almost immediately to the same areas it has left, but the remainder of the heated air splits and flows in two directions, toward the poles. The air chills enough to sink to the surface at about 30 degrees north and south latitudes. This descending air splits and flows over the surface in two directions.
Layers of the Atmosphere
| ||Figure 8-3 ||Atmospheric circulation and heat exchange|
Atmospheric circulation transports heat from the equator to the poles (left side of figure).
Similar upward movements of warm air and its subsequent flow toward the poles also occur at higher latitudes farther from the equator. At the poles, the air cools, sinks, and flows back toward the equator, generally beneath the currents of warm air that simultaneously flow toward the poles. These constantly moving currents move heat from the equator toward the poles and cool the land over which they pass on their return. This continuous circulation moderates temperatures over Earth's surface.
In addition to these global circulation patterns, the atmosphere features smaller-scale horizontal movements, or winds. The motion of wind, with its eddies, lulls, and turbulent gusts, is difficult to predict. It results partly from fluctuations in atmospheric pressure and partly from the planet's rotation.
The gases that constitute the atmosphere have weight and exert a pressure-about 1013 millibars (14.7 lb per in2
) at sea level. Air pressure is variable, depending on altitude, temperature, and humidity. Winds tend to blow from areas of high atmospheric pressure to areas of low pressure, and the greater the difference between the high-and low-pressure areas, the stronger the wind.
As a result of the Coriolis effect
, Earth's rotation from west to east also influences the direction of wind. To visualize the Coriolis effect, imagine you and a friend are trying to roll a ball to each other while sitting apart on a moving merry-go-round (see Figure 8-4
| ||Figure 8-4 ||Coriolis effect|
A playground merry-go-round (seen from above) demonstrates the Coriolis effect. The turning of the merry-go-round represents the rotation of Earth. The center of the merry-go-round corresponds to the North or South Pole, and the outer edge to the equator. The basketball shows the motion of atmospheric and ocean currents.
The atmosphere has three prevailing winds-major surface winds that blow more or less continually (see Figure 8-3
). Prevailing winds from the northeast near the North Pole, or from the southeast near the South Pole, are polar easterlies. Winds that blow in the middle latitudes from the southwest in the Northern Hemisphere, or from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere, are westerlies. Tropical winds from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, or from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, are trade winds.
|What gases make up the atmosphere?|
|What two layers of the atmosphere are closest to Earth's surface? How do they differ?|
|What is the Coriolis effect, and how does it influence atmospheric circulation? |
|Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.|