Please find the first answer below. I will be answering the second question shortly.
Several factors influence today's market landscape. Political, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural forces, and trends related to season, holidays, new market entrants, and region are some of the major factors that influence today's market landscape. Market profitability is influenced by buyer and supplier power, entry barriers, substitute product threat, and rivalry among firms. Demand for variety, preference levels related to service and support, and price sensitivity changes are some of the other influential factors. If I were to order these factors according to their possible impact, then I feel trends created by political factors will have the most impact. Different regions across the world differ greatly in their legal and political approaches which basically determine the extent to which different markets are constrained or facilitated. Politics literally defines the kind of businesses that operate, the way goods are bought and sold, services are delivered, taxes are charged, and concessions are given in a region. Also, stock market prices are greatly affected as they often tend to anticipate and react to changes in political leadership. Added to this, political instability tends to create situations that discourage businesses and directly impact several markets.