1. Hippocrates thought that abnormal behavior resulted from an imbalance in the four humors, one of which was: A) water. B) lymph gland fluid. C) phlegm. D) cerebrospinal fluid.
2. Acquiring insight about unconscious psychological processes is a feature of: A) moral therapy. B) psychoanalysis. C) psychogenic therapy. D) all psychological therapy.
3. The explicit and implicit rules for proper conduct that a society establishes are referred to as: A) norms. B) culture. C) morality. D) conventions.
4. Treatment for mental illness in the early asylums tended to be: A) moral therapy. B) harsh and cruel. C) religiously based. D) psychogenic therapy.
5. Which of the following distinguishes a quasi-experimental study from a true experiment? A) The quasi-experiment does not use a control group. B) The quasi-experiment uses multiple groups for comparison. C) The quasi-experiment does not use any experimental control. D) The quasi-experiment does not allow for manipulation of the independent variable.
6. A physician who offers psychotherapy is called a: A) psychiatrist. B) clinical psychologist. C) psychodiagnostician. D) psychoanalyst.
7. Internal validity reflects how well a study: A) rules out the effects of all variables except those being studied. B) can be generalized to others that are not studied directly. C) appears to be measuring what it is designed to measure. D) predicts some future behavior.
8. A person seeking help for a psychological abnormality is made to drink bitter herbal potions and then submit to a beating, in the hope that “evil spirits” will be driven from the person's body. This form of “therapy” is called: A) exorcism. B) shaman. C) couvade. D) trephination.
9. Which model of abnormality would focus in particular on factors such as economic class, prejudice, and people's support systems? A) behavioral B) cognitive-behavioral C) gestalt D) sociocultural
10. The model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the: A) behavioral model. B) sociocultural model. C) psychodynamic model. D) humanistic-existential model.
11. “When I was young, I met a large dog. I wasn't afraid of the dog, but as I tried to pet it, the dog snarled and jumped at me. I have been afraid of dogs ever since.” A therapist who assumes that this sentence describes a phobia acquired from classical conditioning most likely favors which model of abnormality? A) humanistic-existential B) behavioral C) cognitive D) psychodynamic
12. Which aspect of the definition of abnormality includes the inability to care for oneself and work productively? A) distress B) deviance C) dysfunction D) danger to self or others
13. A young child is ignored by parents until the child yells and throws toys. (“temper tantrum”), at which time the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from: A) unresolved intrapsychic conflict. B) operant conditioning. C) unconditional positive regard. D) neurotransmitter imbalances.
14. What is the term for studies that have the structure of experiments except that they use groups that already exist, instead of randomly assigning participants to control and experimental groups? A) quasi-experiments B) natural experiments C) correlational experiments D) developmental experiments
15. A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the US is called a: A) learned stimulus. B) conditioned stimulus. C) unconditioned stimulus. D) discriminative stimulus.
16. The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the: A) biological model. B) sociocultural model. C) psychodynamic model. D) humanistic-existential model.
17. In the example cited in class, the frosted flakes-oatmeal example highlighted the point that A) frosted flakes fight cancer B) oatmeal causes cancer C) correlation does not mean causation D) correlation doea mean causation
18. A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy? A) Freudian psychoanalysis. B) family systems. C) systematic desensitization. D) cognitive therapy.
19. The model of abnormality that focuses on unconscious internal processes and conflicts in behavior is the: A) cognitive model. B) behavioral model. C) sociocultural model. D) psychodynamic model.
20. In the example cited in class, a woman treated on a psychiatric inpatient unit refused to feed herself, instead insisting that a member of the staff do it. This problem was address behaviorally by A) ignoring her until her hunger forced her to feed herself B) placing another patient at the dining table with her C) having the staff member "accidently" spill food on her D) offering her extra icecream if she fed herself
21. Roughly 2,000 years ago, a Greek or Roman physician would most likely diagnose a person experiencing an overall decline in intellectual functioning as suffering from: A) dementia. B) delusions. C) melancholia. D) hysteria.
22. The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Jean Charcot, Josef Breuer, and even Sigmund Freud was: A) prayer. B) bleeding. C) hypnotism. D) trephining.
23. Another term for a cluster of symptoms is: A) syndrome B) somatogenesis. C) psychogenesis. D) general paresis.
24. If, after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone (without the unconditioned stimulus), it will eventually stop eliciting the conditioned response through a process called: A) extinction. B) habituation. C) punishment. D) unconditioning.
25. In single-subject experimental designs, the participant is observed and measured before the manipulation of an independent variable. This initial observation period is called the: A) reversal period. B) baseline period. C) normalization period. D) standardization period.
26. Which of the following results most likely came from an epidemiological study? A) The rate of suicide is higher in Ireland than in the U.S. B) Autism is caused by influenza vaccinations. C) Child abuse is often found in the backgrounds of those with multiple personalities. D) Alcoholism runs in families.
27. According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, ineffective interaction of the id, ego, and superego can lead to entrapment at a developmental level. This is called: A) fixation. B) neurosis. C) repression. D) displacement.
28. Case studies are helpful for all of the following reasons except that: A) their results may inspire new therapeutic techniques. B) their results can be generalized. C) they may be a source of new ideas about behavior. D) they offer opportunities to study unusual problems.
29. The function of the double-blind design is to guard against: A) participant expectancies. B) experimenter expectancies. C) both a and b. D) neither a nor b.
30. Factors other than the independent variable may also act on the dependent variable. If these factors vary systematically with the independent variable, they are called ______ variables. A) irrelevant B) confounding C) blind variables D) controlled variables
31. The group of participants that is not exposed to the independent variable under investigation (in an experiment) is called the: A) control group. B) confound group. C) dependent group. D) experimental group.
32. As you are talking to your advisor, he stares at the wall and asks you if you see the ants crawling on it (there are none). Your advisor is: A) delusional. B) displaying a neurosis. C) having a hallucination. D) displaying a hysterical symptom.
33. A medical researcher develops a drug that decreases symptoms of depression and other “mood” disorders. The general term for this type of drug is: A) psychogenic. B) somatogenic. C) psychotropic. D) somatotropic.
34. Colin is asked to “free associate” about his mother's new husband and he responds by changing the subject. A psychodynamic therapist would consider this an example of: A) catharsis. B) resistance. C) transference. D) countertransference.
35. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used most often in the treatment of: A) schizophrenia. B) anxiety disorders. C) depression. D) bipolar disorder.
36. One cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the: A) policy of deinstitutionalization. B) use of psychotropic medication. C) decrease in the use of private psychotherapy. D) move to the community mental health approach.
37. In a scientific experiment, the variable manipulated or controlled by the experimenter is called the: A) confounding variable. B) alternative variable. C) dependent variable. D) independent variable.
38. The following experiment is conducted to study the causes of aggression in children. Half the children eat a sugared cereal, the remaining half eat cornflakes. The number of aggressive acts displayed by the children in one-hour play period after breakfast is then recorded. In this experiment: A) sugared cereal is the dependent variable and cornflakes is the independent variable. B) breakfast is the independent variable, and the group of children is the dependent variable. C) the type of cereal is the dependent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the independent variable. D) the type of cereal is the independent variable, and the number of aggressive responses is the dependent variable.
39. If researchers studied Vietnam veterans for 30 years after their return, the study would be: A) epidemiological. B) longitudinal. C) incidental. D) experimental.
40. According to the example cited in class, the best way to get a child to sleep in her own bed rather than in her parent's bed might be to A) make sleeping in her parents bed very uncomfortable B) lock the door to her bedroom C) give her some sleep medication D) threaten to send her favorite teddy bear on a "long vacation"
41. The practice of trephination was probably used to: A) remove a part of the brain. B) relieve pressure on the brain. C) allow the release of evil spirits. D) restore the balance among the four humors.
42. The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that: A) mental problems had a biological basis. B) demonology was a cause of mental illness. C) mental illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness. D) the cause of mental illness was immoral behavior.
43. A researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of depression. Therefore, the researcher may be confident that: A) life stress causes symptoms of depression. B) symptoms of depression cause life stress. C) both a and b. D) neither a nor b.
44. Clinical researchers are usually concerned with a(n) ______ understanding of abnormality, while practitioners focus on a(n) ______ understanding. A) nomothetic, idiographic B) nomothetic, general C) idiographic, individualized D) idiographic, nomothetic
45. An athlete who is in fact well prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, “I can't do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I'm going to fail!” The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance most likely would support which model of abnormality? A) psychodynamic B) behavioral C) existential D) cognitive
46. “Get it, and get it now!” might be an appropriate motto for the: A) id. B) superego. C) erogenous zone. D) ego.
47. Compared to psychodynamic therapy, behavior therapy: A) can be tested in the lab. B) cannot explain the origin of abnormal behavior. C) does not have associated therapeutic techniques. D) is not based on research.
48. Which of the following is true of the correlation coefficient? A) It ranges from 0.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables. B) It rangers from -1.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength and the direction of the relationship between two variable. C) It ranges from 0.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength and the direction of the relationship between two variables. D) It ranges from -1.00 to +1.00 and indicates the strength of the relationship between two variables and the total variability of those measurements.
49. If a mother seems excessively involved in her child's life such that they do not seem to be independent people, their relationship is said to be: A) biopsychosociocultural. B) anthropologic. C) enmeshed. D) disengaged.
50. For people to decide about participating in psychological research, they must be given full knowledge of the nature of the study and their rights. This principle is called: A) risk disclosure. B) benefit analysis. C) informed consent. D) privacy.