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biology help

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The respiratory system:

1. Describe the anatomy of the lungs by following the path of oxygen molecule from the trachea to the alveoli. Also describe the gross anatomy of the lungs including lobes and the serous membrane that surrounds the lungs. Describe the medical disorders that can occur when fluids enter the pleural cavity.

2. Describe the mechanism for pulmonary ventilation. Which muscles are involved in quiet breathing? which muscles are involved in forced breathing?

3. Distinguish between external and internal respiration? Describe the differences in O2 and C02 concentrations for each type of respiration?

4. what are the components of the nervous system that regulate breathing and how do they work? What are the different receptors that regulate breathing and how do they work?

I having trouble answering this question. Please help. Please answer the questions straight to the point. I would really really apreciate it so much!

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xarqi, Generalist
Category: Homework
Satisfied Customers: 596
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xarqi and 2 other Homework Specialists are ready to help you
Customer: replied 11 years ago.
Reply to xarqi's Post: the respiratory system part the link will not open. it keep saying this page cannot be displayed
Weird - it works for me. I'll grab the text and post it for now,
but keep trying.
Quote:
Oxygen-laden air is inhaled into the alveoli of the lungs
by way of the structures illustrated in fig. 5. Blood within the
pulmonary artery is oxygen-poor and contains a large
concentration of carbon dioxide. As blood passes through the
capillaries surrounding the alveoli, oxygen diffuses into blood
and carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood into the alveoli.
Thereafter, carbon dioxide is exhaled by moving from the alveoli
to the nose. Since the blood within the pulmonary vein is
oxygen-rich and contains a small concentration of carbon
dioxide, it is clear that carbon dioxide has been traded for
oxygen as blood passes through the lungs.
The respiratory center, located in the medulla oblongata
automatically discharges nerve impulses to the diaphragm and
the muscles of the rib cage. In its relaxed state, the diaphragm
is dome-shaped, but upon stimulation, it contracts and lowers.
Also the rib cage moves upward and outward. As the thoracic
cavity increases in size, air pressure within the expanded lungs
lowers and is immediately rebalanced by air rushing in through
the nose. This is why it can be said that humans breathe by
negative pressure. When the respiratory center stops sending
out stimulatory nerve impulses the diaphragm and rib cage
resume their original positions and exhalation occurs.

There are chemoreceptors adjacent to the respiratory center in
the medulla oblongata that are sensitive to the carbon dioxide
content of the blood, and chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid
arteries that are sensitive to both the carbon dioxide content
and the pH of the blood. When the carbon dioxide concentration
rises or when the pH lowers the respiratory center is stimulated
and the breathing rate increases. It is interesting to observe that
the oxygen content of the blood does not directly affect the
activity of the respiratory center.

Customer: replied 11 years ago.
Reply to xarqi's Post: this answer goes to what question iam confused. when you typed oxygen-laden air is inhaled into the alveoli......
This is the text from the site you couldn't access. It relates to
the nervous system control of respiration, and the primary
sensors involved, particularly those in the aorta and carotids.

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