There are multiple thing that can cause a painful, red and white tongue.
Among them are allergies to certain chemicals, such as sodium laureth sulfate, found in some toothpastes. Switching to a toothpaste without this ingredient (Tom's of Maine is one brand carried most places) can help.
Leukoplakia is white patches that can't be scraped off that can develop on the tongue and the gums as well. It causes discomfort and can be a precursor to oral cancer.
Geographic tongue is a generally harmless problem that causes red areas on different parts of the tongue at different times.
Oral candidiasis (thrush) is another possible diagnosis. It's very common in children and in those with diabetes and other immune compromised problems.
Oral lichen planus is yet another possibility. This one generally gets better on its own.
You will need to see your dentist or physician for an examination and a prior diagnosis. In the meanwhile, skip the peroxide, change toothpastes, avoid hot, spicy, sour foods (anything that irritates your tongue), smoking, etc. Any problem with the tongue that lasts more than two weeks needs to be evaluated by a medical professional.
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