1. Aspartate is:
a. a transmitter released from glial cells only.
b. an excitatory transmitter that acts in much the same way as glutamate.
c. the ionized form of the amino acid glutamic acid.
d. found in the spinal cord, whereas glutamate is found in the brain.
e. not yet established as a transmitter substance in humans.
2. Which of the following processes does not occur in LTP?
a. the AMPA-receptor mediated EPSP is facilitated
b. calcium influx activates protein kinases
c. AMPA receptors increase in number and in sensitivity
d. tetanic stimulation displaces magnesium ions during the induction phase
e. NMDA receptors are highly activated during the expression phase
3. Which of the following areas is not rich in GABA?
a. cerebral cortex
e. substantia nigra
4. What do neurosteroids and benzodiazepines have in common?
a. enhance GABAA receptor function
b. sedative-hypnotic effects
c. reduce anxiety
d. act as local signaling molecules
e. all of the above
5. The most commonly used illicit drug is:
6. The physical dependence model of addiction cannot:
a. explain early drug use that leads to dependence, only drug use that occurs after dependence has occurred.
b. readily explain addiction to drugs that do not induce strong physical dependence.
c. readily explain relapse to drug use that occurs after drug detoxification.
d. all of the above.
7. The incentive-sensitization model of addiction distinguishes between __________ and __________.
a. drug seeking; drug taking
b. drug liking; drug wanting
c. drug liking; drug taking
d. craving; drug seeking
8. The reinforcing effects of drugs may be attributed to:
a. relief from feelings of anxiety.
b. euphoria or mood elevation.
c. functional enhancement.
d. all of the above.
9. During fermentation, yeast converts each __________ molecule into two molecules of __________ and two molecules of carbon dioxide.
a. sugar; alcohol
b. fat; alcohol
c. alcohol; sugar
d. sugar; fat
10. The memory disturbances seen in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome include:
a. the loss of memory for events in the distant past.
b. total amnesia
c. a loss of short-term, immediate memory with retention of distant memories.
d. little actual memory impairment.
11. Acute alcohol __________ and chronic alcohol __________ GABAA-mediated chloride flux.
a. enhances; inhibits
b. inhibits; inhibits
c. enhances; enhances
d. inhibits; enhances
12. In the __________ method of genetic study, genes of affected and unaffected individuals who are not related are compared to search for alleles that may be common among affected individuals.
b. linkage study
c. selective breeding
d. family history
are dangerous at high doses due mostly to:
a. effects on cardiac muscle.
b. the increased likelihood of a stroke.
c. the suppression of the brain stem's respiratory centre.
d. an overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
e. the inability to experience pain in dangerous situations.
14. What do we know about the structure of the opiate receptor from receptor cloning studies?
a. Each receptor has between 650 and 700 amino acids.
b. The receptors appear to be metabotropic.
c. Each receptor has 12 transmembrane proteins.
d. These receptors will bind to the same ligands in the same way.
e. All of the above.
15. When you stub your toe on a hard object, the lingering ache you feel after the initial sharp pain has worn off is caused by:
a. pain messages traveling in the A(delta) fibers.
b. input reaching the somatosensory cortex and being processed in adjacent areas.
c. information being carried in slowly conducting unmyelinated fibres.
d. rapid adaptation occurring at spinal cord levels.
e. stimulation of the secondary sensory pain system.