This incidence almost sounds like you had a bout with acid reflux and you might have aspirated some of the stomach acid during the event. This would explain the soreness in the throat, and odd taste in the mouth (with no other respiratory symptoms and absence of fever).
At this point, if you are not already on some type of acid reducer, you might could try some Prilosec OTC for a couple of weeks and see if this reduces the acid taste in the mouth and also to see if you cease to have another episode like this.
Of course, try to also avoid foods high in acid, like tomatoes, citrus, and spicey foods. Also, do not eat within 2 hours of lying down.
If you start to develop a fever or start to have new symptoms, you would, of course, need to see your Dr for a more investigative exam.
PLEASE NOTE: The $$$ that you have put down as a deposit will not go to me until you click "ACCEPT" after reading your answer. Otherwise, it will be held by JustAnswer.com and I will not receive credit for my time and efforts.
Please ask for clarification if needed.
Sounds like it's time to possibly go to something stronger that the OTC version then. Possibly something prescription strength like Protonix.
Your inability to breathe without coughing is most likely do to the fact that you might have aspirated some of the acid and has irritated your bronchial tubes/airways. But undoubtedly hydrochloric acid inhaled onto your bronchial tubes will cause inflammation and make you cough when trying to take a deep breath. It is also not uncommon for people with acid reflux to develop Pneumonia after an episode like this, so if you notice fever, shortness of breath, or your cough does not resolve on it's own in a few more days, it might be a good idea to get the cough checked out.