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It is unlikely that the short term exposure would cause any damage to the lungs.
Such exposure could cause the headaches, as you have, or potentially cause immediate irritation of the lungs (for example, if you had reactive airways -- it could have caused wheezing and trouble breathing at that time).
But a local, limited exposure should not have a substantial effect on the long term condition of your lungs. (Unfortunately, emphysema, being what it is, will lead to a deterioration of the lungs with time -- something that cannot be avoided).