There are two main types of hiatal hernias- sliding and paraesophageal (next to the esophagus).
In a sliding hiatal hernia, the stomach and the section of the esophagus that joins the stomach slide up into the chest through the hiatus.
The paraesophageal hernia is less common and the esophagus and stomach stay in their normal locations, but part of the stomach squeezes through the hiatus, landing it next to the esophagus.
As such symptoms of sliding hernia include -
heartburn and regurgitation.
burning sensation in throat, nausea
difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) .
They almost always are those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) .
Paraesophageal hiatal hernias may not present symptoms although if it is large then it compresses the adjacent esophagus, may impede the passage of food into the stomach and cause food to stick in the esophagus after it is swallowed. Fortunately, large para-esophageal hernias are uncommon.
The para- esophageal hernias themselves remain in the chest at all times and are not affected by swallows.
Ulcers also may form in the herniated stomach due to the trauma caused by food that is stuck or acid from the stomach.Barium X-ray
can be helpful in diagnose of types of hernia.
Both get repaired with same Laparascopic hernia repair with Nissen fundoplication surgery.
I hope this helps.