The smoking, is still the worst thing that he is doing. Some of the harm of smoking is that it gradually destroys everything effected by the circulation by constricting the tiny arterioles, increasing kidney disease, blood pressure, heart disease, brain disease (strokes and/or dementia) over time. It can make the blood clot too much, causing lack of oxygen to tissues due to the constricting effect and the increased clot formation. And of course, it cause destruction of the lungs. The thing is that the effects are gradual enough that the bad effects usually happen starting in the 40's or 50's and it is often too late to change everything after a stroke, severe lung disease or a heart attack has occurred. You can change then, but it seems sad that many people wait until they have something like that happen to realize what they are actually doing to their body.
The prescription medications could be causing a problem depending on how he takes them. Mostly what you have mentioned above don't have interactions together and if they are not taken in excess they are not necessarily bad. I would have to know more about what he is doing that is different from how they are prescribed, otherwise they are not harmful really. It just shows that he tends to reach for a pill to solve his problems rather than trying life style changes, or changing his environment.
The medications he is taking show that he has depression, attention deficet, shoulder pain, trouble sleeping.
As a health care provider, we have people with these types of problems that we see frequently. There are life style changes that could help with most of these problems. With these sometimes you do need medication, but medication alone is not enough to take care of all the problems. So, some of these problems are partially genetic,but at the same time, it sounds like he needs to change things about life as well. This is a society wide problem, unfortunately, but he can be one of the people that can change his life for the better, but he has to believe it.
For example, how much is he working? What type of job does he have? Does he enjoy his job? I see many people that hate what they are doing, but it is not simple to convince them to start doing something they love. If they have responsibilities, have too many credit card bills, etc., it is hard just to switch your life conditions all at once. We often don't realize how we are setting ourselves up when we are younger for a stressful life by picking certain careers, etc. But, changes can be made. And sometimes just really believing that and getting started on it can help with the depression, focus, stress, etc.
Is he open to therapy? If he had a good therapist that could work with him, that would be great. But again, he has to want to change his lifestyle and he might not be ready to do that.
As far as physical problems caused by the regimen you described above, stress, smoking, energy drinks and adderal are likely to cause a blood pressure problem. He may want to have it checked over time, as some times it occurs during part of the day, not all day.
Poor sleep does decrease physical health. The brain needs to rest and also repair and if one is not getting enough sleep, they'll more prone to high blood pressure, forgetfulness, obesity, and depression. There are studies coming out very frequently now showing the negative effects of poor sleep on the body.
So it is similar to a person that is doing behavior that is harmful, like an addiction. You can't really do that much to change him. He has to decide to want to do it himself.The healthier you are, the more he may decide to join in with you. But even that can't be predicted. If you find yourself repeatedly getting into a difficult place in your relationship because of his behaviors that are harmful, I'd suggest you read some material on Codependency. You can find it on websites or you can look for the book named "Codependent No More" by Melody Beatty. It will give you ideas on how to live with someone who has destructive behavior.
I hope this is helpful. If you do have more questions related to this please ask me on a reply, I do want you to be satisfied with your answer.