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Sijad H.
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Category: General
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A science question Where do surface waves travel - through

Resolved Question:

A science question: Where do surface waves travel - through the earth or on the earth's surface?
Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: General
Expert:  Sijad H. replied 3 years ago.

supercj21 :

Hi and thank you for your question I will be happy to assist you.

Customer:

Okay

supercj21 :

Surface waves travel only through the earth's crust and are usually what is responsible for the earthquakes destructive power.

supercj21 :

Theres two types of surface waves, the love waves which move the ground side to side and rayleigh waves that move the ground up and down.

Customer:

I need to choose between these 2 answers ... A) THROUGH the earth or B) ON the earth's surface

supercj21 :

Oh okay, the answer would be they move along the surface of the earth

Customer:

My book refers to an S-wave which I assume is the "love" wave that you mention. The "rayleigh" in my book is the P_wave which means push and pull.

Customer:

Another question --- where is the mid-ocean ridge?

Customer:

what is a trench

supercj21 :

okay please give me a minute to answer those two questions.

Customer:

Thank you so much.

supercj21 :

For your first question. do you mean the mid-atlantic ridge?

supercj21 :

Mid ocean ridge is a term used for under water mountains. Theres quite a few of them, none of which are called mid ocean ridge specifically. The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean, making the mid-oceanic ridge system the longest mountain range in the world. The continuous under water mountain range is about 40,000 miles long.

supercj21 :

Trenches are long and narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor and are considered the deepest parts of the ocean floor.

Customer:

Thank you for those answers - great help. Now another question --- What parts of the earth make up the lithosphere?

supercj21 :

The lithosphere is is composed of the outershell of the Earth and consists of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle.

Customer:

Terrific ... thanks

Customer:

Next question ...How do we know the outer core is liquid?

supercj21 :

The outer core is molten because of the high temperature in that region. Near its center, the core’s temperature is about 6000ºC, as hot as the Sun’s surface.

Customer:

What proof is there the continents were once one large landmass or was it?

Customer:

Is the outer core considered liquid?

supercj21 :

Actually, there is evidence that the major land masses were together twice. The most recent was called Pangea. The previous one was called Rodinia.

The evidence is not a single fact. It was the work of many geologists using a variety of techniques to locate the continents at previous times. Note that the current continents are a result of the break up of Pangea. The previous continents had different components.

If you look at a map of the world, you can easily see that the Atlantic Ocean did not exist at one time. The eastern coast of South America neatly fits into the western coast of Africa. The eastern coast of North America fits against the western coastline of Europe. There is ample evidence indicating that these were joined at one time.

The strata on both sides of the south Atlantic are similar. The mid-Atlantic ridge is a spreading center creating the oceanic crust between Africa and South America. The spreading is still happening at approximately the rate at which finger nails grow, and this is being measured constantly using long wavelength interferometry. The Atlantic crust shows reversals of the magnetic orientation of its minerals, showing that the magnetic orientation of the earth changes and these changes show that the Atlantic is expanding.

supercj21 :

Yes the outercore is considered a liquid.

Customer:

Question: Circa early 1900's which of the following was NOT used as evidence to prove that the continents were once one large landmass? A)Earthquakes occurred along plate boundaries. B) Animal and plant fossils matched up on continents now separated by oceans. C)Mountain ranges and rock types lined up on separate continents. or D() The shapes of the continents seemed to fit together like puzzle pieces.

supercj21 :

B

Customer:

How can you tell on any earthquake fault what shows that stress is building between the plates ... A)ridges formed by fault movements B)fault no longer straight C) both A and B or D) sometimes not evident in the landscape

supercj21 :

C

Customer:

Was Wallace Creek in California a famous fault?

supercj21 :

Yes, it is also known as the San Andreas fault and is over 700 miles in length. It is the boundary between the pacific and north american tectonic plates. Its famous because the surface expression of the fault is well defined

Customer:

Do "rayleigh" waves travel through liquid?

supercj21 :

No they are surface waves. They do not travel through liquid

Customer:

Are rayleigh waves the same as "P" (push and pull) waves?

supercj21 :

a "P" wave is considered either a primary wave or pressure wave. It can travel through solids liquids and gases. Rayleigh wave are not the same as this P wave, but they create the up and down movement during an earthquake.

Customer:

Do "s" waves (side to side) travel through liquid?

Customer:

Last question - how are mountains formed?

supercj21 :

Mountains are formed from plates being pushed against each other and one plate folds over the other. Perfect example is when you shuffle a duck of cards. Split the deck and you have two small piles but when you shuffle and integrate them back together the pile grows.

Customer:

You have been terrific help - thank you sooooooooooo much. I shall do the feedback asap.

Sijad H., Consultant
Category: General
Satisfied Customers: 1605
Experience: Jack of all trades. I know a little bit about a lot of bit.
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Jack of all trades. I know a little bit about a lot of bit.