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The starter solenoid hooks up as follows.
There are 2 large post, the battery cable attatches to the one near the battery.
The cable that goes to the starter attatches to the other post.
All remaining wires attach to the same post as the battery cable from the battery.
The cable from the starter will be the only cable attached to the other post.
The solenoid is a large switch that sends power to the starter to start the truck. Once the truck is running, there is no power on the starter side. That is the reason all remaining wires attach to the battery side of the solenoid. That is probably why your battery did not charge. The wire from the alternator goes to the battery cable side.
Check battery voltage and see if you are getting power to the starter side of the solenoid when cranking.