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If you go ahead and locate TDC there is not any chance of engine damage.
However, getting the Syncro lined up correctly is nearly impossible without the correct tools.
On that engine, the tool is called the Synchronizer Alignment Gauge and the part number is XXXXX
That sensor (the cam shaft position sensor, also called the cylinder identification sensor) sets the timing for the fuel injectors and haveing it out of time will not cause any engine damage. It will cause what you have felt, sputtering and lack of power.