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Karla, Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
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Experience:  15 years experience in business as both accounting and auditing management
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1) Describe the 4 types of adjusting entries and provide a

Resolved Question:

1) Describe the 4 types of adjusting entries and provide a manufacturing (mfg.) industry
example of each.
2) Explain why adjusting entries are necessary.
3) Describe how these entries would be recorded in a computerized accounting system.
4) Describe 2 ethical issues that could result from the preparation of these mfg. entries.

Answers due by: Thur 11/18 @9pm
Submitted: 3 years ago.
Category: Finance
Expert:  Karla replied 3 years ago.
I got it, will work it tomorrow.
Customer: replied 3 years ago.
Hi....Just in case you were not able to locate the original question, it is everything listed above with these words preceding it....."You are an accountant in a medium-sized manufacturing company. You have been asked to mentor an accounting clerk who is new to your accounting department. THANKS will communicate with you later this afternoon. GOOD NIGHT.
Expert:  Karla replied 3 years ago.
a) Explain why adjusting entries are necessary.

Adjusting journal entries are made at the end of each closing period to adjust the account balances. Most times, this is necessary in order to achieve a clean cut-off at the end of the accounting period and to ensure the accounts are complete and accurate. Current account balances may not represent correct balances because mistakes were identified in the posting of transactions and/or the accounting records are not updated to reflect new transactions or amount changes in previous transactions. Examples would include amounts posted to the wrong accounts and timing differences in recognizing revenues and expenses between the accrual and the cash basis of accounting. (Adjusting JE, 2010) Adjusting entries can be either temporary or permanent. If the entry is temporary at some point the adjusting entry will be reversed or another adjusting entry will be made to the account.

b) Describe the 4 types of adjusting entries, and provide a manufacturing industry example of each.

Basic types of adjusting journal entries:

  • Accrued revenues (also called accrued assets) are revenues already earned but not yet paid by the customer or posted to the general ledger. An example of accrued revenue would be for a custom ordered machine that has been shipped FOB shipping point on the day the accounts receivable module is closed and the approval to bill the customer has not been received by the billing clerk. An adjusting entry would be recorded to recognize the revenue in the correct period. This entry will reverse when the customer is appropriately invoiced.
    • Accrued Revenue 14,000
      • Revenue 14,000
  • Unearned revenues (or deferred revenues) are revenues received in cash and recorded as liabilities prior to being earned. Unearned revenue is a liability to the entity until the revenue is earned. An example of unearned revenue would be if the customer paid a deposit for a custom ordered machine that has not been delivered, the deposit would be recorded as unearned revenue. This type of adjusting entry will be adjusted by another entry.
    • Revenue 14,000
      • Deferred Revenue 14,000
  • Accrued expenses (also called accrued liabilities) are expenses already incurred but not yet paid or recorded. Examples of these types of adjusting entries could be for payroll that has been earned by employees on the last day of the period but not paid until the next payroll date. These types of entries generally reverse the next month.
    • Salaries Expense 89,000
      • Salaries Payable 89,000
  • Prepaid expenses (or deferred expenses) are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets prior to being used. The most common form of an adjusting entry for prepaid expense would be for the used portion of an insurance premium. These types of adjusting entries are usually permanent.
    • Insurance Expense 1,000
      • Prepaid Insurance 1,000
  • Other adjusting entries include depreciation of fixed assets, allowances for bad debts, and inventory adjustments.
    • Bad Debt Expense 50
      • Allowance for Bad debt 50 (Adjusting EN, 2010)
c) Describe how these entries would be recorded in a computerized accounting system.

At the end of each closing period, usually monthly, a thorough analysis of the trial balance is preformed. This analysis includes performance budget to actual and month to month to ensure all of the accounts are correctly stated. When an adjusting entry is identified, a journal entry input form is prepared. This form should be supported with source documents that justify the entry and reviewed and approved by the appropriate level of accounting management. Once the approval has been obtained, the journal entry is keyed into the general ledger system as either a standard or self reversing journal entry. The journal entry is than posted to the general ledger.

d) Describe 2 ethical issues that could result from the preparation of these manufacturing entries?

Adjusting journal entries are a good way for management to manipulate financial results by either accruing more revenue or expense than appropriate and for fraudsters to hide skimming, which is the misappropriation of cash. It is extremely important to understand that each adjusting journal entry must be fully supported and approved.

References:

Adjusting, JE. (2010). Adjusting journal entries. Retrieved from http://accountinginfo.com/study/je/aje/index.htm

Adjusting, EN. (2010). Adjusting entries in accounting. Retrieved from http://www.college-cram.com/study/accounting/accounting-cycle/adjusting-entries-in-accounting/

Edited by Karla on 11/17/2010 at 8:09 PM EST
Karla, Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
Category: Finance
Satisfied Customers: 141
Experience: 15 years experience in business as both accounting and auditing management
Karla and 4 other Finance Specialists are ready to help you
Customer: replied 3 years ago.
Hi, I just posted a new question with For: Karla (CPA) preceding the question.
Expert:  Karla replied 3 years ago.
I got it!!!

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