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In New Jersey a guardianship for your mother can only be granted by the Superior Court of New Jersey. In order to have you appointed as a guardian, you would have to show that her condition is such that she is unable to effectively manage her affairs. The Court will then issue a judgment determining that she is incapacitated, and will appoint you as a guardian.
There are two scenarios with guardians, one is that the Court will appoint a "guardian of the estate" solely for the management of her financial matters. In such case she will still be free to make his or her own decisions regarding medical and other personal matters.
It is also possible for the Court to appoint a "guardian of the person" for her. That person will have decision-making authority over medical matters and other personal matters, such as where she will live. A guardian who is only "guardian of the person" has no authority over financial matters.
Many times the court appoints two different guardians, but it is up to the judge.
Since you don’t want her to go through the medical evaluation and court process the only other alternative you have is to have her sign a power of attorney over her business and financial affairs. However, a power of attorney document signed under her condition now would have to state that "This Power of Attorney shall be effective regardless of any disability I may suffer in the future".
Otherwise you must file a guardianship proceeding, which is taken very seriously by the Court because once a judgment of disability is entered, the person will lose substantially all of their rights to make their own decisions. The NJ Court system is also very concerned for the well-being of disabled persons.
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