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No, the child in your care would not be able to receive your SS benefit unless they fell into one of these categories: biological child, adopted child, or dependent stepchild. (Or in some cases, a grandchild.)
In Texas, you would file a Petition to Terminate Parental Rights coupled with a Petition for Adoption. If the parents will sign off on a Voluntary Relinquishment of Parental Rights, that will help, otherwise you will have to present evidence to the court that it is in the child's best interest to have their biological parent's rights terminated and be adopted by you. The court looks at the biological parent's history, attempts at remaining in the child's life, paying support for the child, criminal and drug history, etc.
If CPS is involved in this case, they would be a party to the suit as well. The Judge will also likely appoint an attorney ad litem for the child to represent the child. This cost is generally paid by the party who brings the suit.