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The common law spouse would be entitled to half of hte community property which is property that was acquired during marriage, not the property that you owned prior to marriage unless you do something to change its character (such as adding your spouse's name to it).
However, if you get divorced in the United States then the divorce court will have jurisdiction over all property no matter where it is located. While NY doesn't have common law marriage, it does recognize common law marriages if they are entered into in a place where they are legal.
You may want to consider getting some type of pre-nuptial agreement or another agreement that says 1) the person isn't entitled to any property and 2) there is no common law marriage that will be entered into.
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Of course, please feel free to ask any follow up questions in this thread. I want to be sure that all of your questions are answered. In addition, once you issue your Positive Rating the question will lock open and no longer time out so you can come back to it anytime in the future if you think of any follow ups.