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In WY it is considered a “status offense” [i.e. against the law] to run away from home if you are under 18. Even if he were to come to MD, the police are authorized to return the youth directly to his home in WY without considering his wishes. So, under these circumstance, A MD court will not likely exercise jurisdiction over the child.
In order to file to be his guardian, you would have to have a court terminate his parent-child relationship. This can be a long and difficult process. Even if a MD court accepts it, by the time that case comes to trial, he will be of age to file for emancipation in WY.
The courts in Maryland may grant emancipation if a minor marries, joins the military, demonstrates that he is living separately from the parents and has a source of income, or can show parental neglect and abuse. However, the child cannot be legally emancipated until his parents or a governmental agency petitions the court for emancipation. In MD, however, teenagers 16 and over are likely to win petitions for emancipation if they prove to the court they will be self-supporting.
Maryland does not allow a minor to go to court on his or her own to request emancipation. He would also need his parents' or the State of MD's to file the petition. If he simply moves to MD and becomes self-supporting then he would be considered emancipated if the parents do not seek his return within a reasonable amount of time.
If they cannot find him and the police cannot find him, then there should be no issue. He could just wait it out till he is at the age of emancipation and apply in WY. If he applies in MD, the judge may inquiry about his parents' whereabouts and at that time it may be discovered that they have been looking for him.
In MD, there is no written statute or court rule that sets out a procedure for emancipation. This means that judges will apply “common law”. My professional opinion is that residency will become an issue for the court as it may find that his home in WY is his place of residence. There is no clear answer to this question and I am not finding any case law on it in the free legal databases that I have.