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Yes, the judge can make a ruling on something that is not in the motion so long as it's based upon the judge's opinion regarding the best interests of the child. If the judge's ruling was made using that standard, then it is permitted because the judge must ultimately protect the child regardless of what the parents ask for in any motions. However, you should be given a chance to respond and present any arguments that you have. If you weren't given that opportunity, then you should file a motion to reconsider and make your arguments in the motion and ask for a hearing. You would not, however, be able to get a new judge. But you can appeal and of course the appeal would be heard by a different judge since it would be in the appellate court.
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The judge cannot make arbitrary and capricious rulings, so I won't be able to provide you with such legislative statutes. If a ruling is arbitrary, then it would be an abuse of discretion.