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HIPAA protection extends to underage patients, which includes students. But this protection has to be requested. If your daughter publicly stated to a receptionist that she has a headache, or where she stated it had no 'reasonable' privacy protection (a closed door, for example), there is no HIPAA protection for such information. In addition HIPAA does not cover the whole school it covers only three types of individuals or entities--it covers medical facilities and professionals, medical insurance companies, and medical intermediaries such as medical billing offices. A receptionist who is not a medical professional is not covered under law.
I can potentially agree with you that if the nurse failed to take your child into a private location, then a claim for negligence can be made. But if your child volunteered this information, that is not a violation.
Now the second issue is more direct and potentially able to be pursued. This may be a basis for a defamation suit and a breach of duty to maintain confidentiality if unrelated third parties were part of this conversation. It also becomes a HIPAA violation as far as the nurse is concerned if she was the one who communicated this information herself to the district without obtaining proper waives from you. Here, you are not being overly sensitive (the first issue is likely borderline), so you may want to pursue this further and even consider retaining counsel.