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The wife would not necessarily be "deported" after 2 years of marriage. I don't know what they did in terms of immigration, but "5 years" is typically the time limit from getting a green card (permanent residence) to becoming a citizen. If the green card was obtained during marriage, that time limit would be 3 years. Now the first two years that an immigrant has a green card due to marriage to a US citizen, that's a "conditional" permanent residence. If they divorce within the first two years, the green card would likely be revoked (although she could petition on the basis of her daughter, who would have separate right by being the legal child of a US resident). 5 years / 3 years pertains to citizenship, not presence in which she could / could not be deported. Even if she's a permanent resident (green card) she could stay.
He would have rights to his adopted daughter, and could fight for custody and at least visitation. It's unlikely given his age that the court would award him custody, but he would still have rights to visitation.
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