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This can depend on the specific judge's mindset in the county where you are filing for divorce.
To obtain a divorce if you have no idea where the spouse is requires a procedure for a particular court when serving someone by publication. Most courts will appoint an ad litem attorney to represent the interests of their missing spouse. If you do not know where you spouse is, the court will generally appoint someone to attempt to locate them so that they can be served personally. The court will generally order the spouse requesting service by publication to pay the ad litem fees which generally range from $500.00 to $1,500.00. Some courts will approve no appointment of an ad litem in a publication divorce if there is an affidavit of no children born during the marriage. There is no guarantee and really requires that you check with the specific court in your county prior to filing.