This is a really intelligent question; I haven't dealt with this particular problem for some time, so it is a nice mental refresher for me. Getting a marriage dissolved in the United States, Kansas in particular, is not a problem as long as one spouse resides in the state for 60 days prior to filing; Kansas is a "no-fault" divorce state, so the court typically does not have reservations about due process concerns that might arise due to the involuntary unavailability of a party.
The larger challenges arise dealing with property division and support; if one spouse is unable to gain entry into the United States, the courts will generally divide the marital property and debts of the parties; however, my experience has been that the courts are inclined to make the judgment "without prejudice"--meaning that the other spouse can come back at a later time and challenge the court's ruling.
Of course, if the spouse is given the opportunity to seek lawful entry into the country and simply refuses to do so, or if the spouse cooperates and the terms of divorce can be agreed upon, there are no issues.
So, in short, "yes" a divorce can be granted where the other party is out of the country even if their inability to enter the U.S. is involuntary, and "yes" matters of property/debt division and support/alimony
can be adjudicated as well, but under those circumstances the property and support decisions can typically be challenged in the home state at a later date.
Let me know if further clarification is needed. Thanks.