Depends on the state, but probably not. It appears that there was no MARRIAGE, just a ceremony.
Was a marriage license ever applied for or purchased? Did you just "forget" to sign it, or was the plan to just have a ceremony but not make it official. I assume the plan was to not make it official.
It is unlikely you would be responsible for any of his prior debts even if there was a valid marriage, but it appears there is no valid marriage, so you would not be liable.
Yes, a prenuptial agreement. That way you can have a legal marriage and protect your assets. The other thought is to talk to an estate planning attorney (which I am not) to discuss that option, although my guess is that the prenuptial agreement would probably work better.
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