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Dry eye can occur because of inflammation in the eyes, and the black follicles could be secondary to the dryness in the eyes. If lubricating eye drops, such as Refresh, are not effective at controlling the dry eyes, then another option would be Restasis eye drops, which is available by prescription.
It also is possible that this could be related to allergy, although there would usually be evidence of allergy from the exam by the eye doctor. An antihistamine eye drop may do better for allergies.
When there are particles that are only in the eye, it suggests that it is from the eyes, rather from the environment. Environmental exposures would usually cause more diffuse findings, such as also in the nose and mouth. With the findings of the eye doctor, it would suggest that these are related to the dry eyes, such as concretion of sloughed material that would normally be flushed from the eyes. I do not know of any company that could perform such as examination in the home.
Yes, the tears would typically flush them out of the eyes, but with dry eyes, you are not making the usual amount of tears, which is why treating the dry eyes is important.
Blowing air on the face would not cause dry eyes unless there is a condition of the eyes also present, as the eyes can normally have a vast increase in tear production. However, in someone with a condition causing dry eyes, blowing air on the eyes can significantly compound the problem.