Hi. I'm online and happy to answer your question today.
A broken blood vessel is called a subconjunctival hemorrhage and it is rarely painful.
Since you are feeling like something got in your eye it is possible that a small amount of the glue fell in your eye along with the fumes. Eyelash glue is like superglue. It will not actually stick to your eyeball because the eyeball is moist.
It does, however, form a small hard plastic button that, if it was to be caught under you lid would cause your eye to be really red and feel like something is in it.
I suggest you see an ophthalmologist, or if one is not available, an optometrist. They will double evert your lid, put in some stain and check for any chunks of eyelash glue.
does this make sense to you?
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