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First let me address the second part of your question. There is no set time for macular pucker/hole to progress from one stage to another.
The success rate (success as you define it I would assume to mean restoration of vision) varies depending on many, many factors: How long the hole has been present, what caused the hole to form, any other retinal/ocular pathology present, if anatomical closure can be achieved, compliance with post op positioning etc.
Yes, a general ophthalmologist would be expected to detect a macular hole during a complete eye examination.
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