Under California law, penalties arise only if the employer fails to pay your final earned wages in a timely manner, or if their failure to pay you timely is part of a larger pattern or practice. In the latter circumstance, the employer generally pays the fine to the DLSE, not to the employee. Unfortunately, in most cases, the only financial repercussion for failing to pay earned wages on time is the accrual of interest, which would be in such a small amount that a claim would not be something worthwhile to pursue.
As for the accrued vacation, no law requires employers to pay accrued vacation except at the time the employee's employment terminates. No law is broken by paying some employees their accrued vacation but not others, so long as the motivation for doing so is not a legally protected trait, such as race or religion.
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