The main job protection for injured employees is the Family Medical Leave Act, which guarantees eligible employees up to 12 months of protected job leave for "serious health conditions." However, in order to be eligible for the FMLA, an employee must have worked for their employer for at least one year. Having worked for your employer for less than one year, the FMLA unfortunately would not apply. The only remaining protection is that afforded through the Americans With Disabilities Act, which requires employers to "reasonably accommodate" a disabled employee's need to miss work. The problem with arguing that the ADA applies is twofold. First, injuries such as what you describe often do not rise to the level of a "disability," as the condition is only temporary. Second, even if your condition does qualify as a "disability" the ADA only requires employers to allow time off to the extent that it is "reasonable" for them to do so and does not result in "undue hardship" on the company. This is unlike the FMLA which guarantees 12 full weeks, regardless of hardship to the company.
Nonetheless, the ADA is the only avenue for potential legal recourse here. Typically, the best course of action would therefore be to inform your employer in writing that the ADA requires them to hold your position as a "reasonable accommodate" for your disability. This alone may cause them to reconsider their position out of fear of being sued. Then, if they still refuse to bring you back on, you would need to file a complaint with the EEOC, which is the federal agency that enforces the ADA. The EEOC will investigate and attempt to mediate a resolution with your employer. That not forthcoming, they will either file a lawsuit on your behalf or issue you a "right to sue" letter, which will enable you to sue in civil court with the assistance of an attorney.
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