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There is no set time frame for how long an employee has to pay back and overpayment. Nothing in the law dictates that there must be a fair or long term repayment plan. The terms are only negotiable if the employer is willing to negotiate.
The employer has to give notice of a deduction. They don't have to receive permission, at least this is true in your state specifically.
The employer has some liability in the mistake, but that just means that they can't charge you interest for having been overpaid. Normally, if someone owes you money, you can legally charge them interest (and the court will even add that to their judgment), but here they cannot do so.
So, the employer would just be restricted to the Federal rule that disallows a deduction that reduces your income to below the minimum wage requirement for the week or weeks involved.
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