Employment Law Questions? Ask an Employment Lawyer.
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On these facts, no you wouldn't have grounds to sue. Under Federal law, you are only entitled to 12 weeks of protected medical leave in a year. Any leave beyond that is not legally mandatory for an employer to grant and they can terminate employment at any time once that 12 weeks has lapsed.
If you have been out on medical leave for over a year already, your protected medical leave time frame has passed multiple times already and the employer could legally terminate your employment without fear of a successful lawsuit against them.
This is likely why the terms of the offered separation agreement aren't to your liking (suggesting that it isn't very generous). Generous offers are only extended when an employer actually is concerned about a potential lawsuit.
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If you had already used all of your FMLA, then legally you could be terminated at any time. Unfortunately, when the FMLA was passed, it was made in a limited fashion so that employers only had to protect a short and specific amount of medical leave each year (not for each medical issue).
As for not telling you that you were laid off, that is unprofessional and fairly uncharacteristic for an employer but not it does not create a cause of action that would be financially worth pursuing (at most, it could be considered worth a week's salary).