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Unfortunately, they can although if you want to fight it you may be able to get a judge to reverse the decision.
I have seen the Texas DPS do this on other occasions and have not seen a case yet where the license holder sued the state over it, likely due to the expense. However, i think that there is a reasonable chance that a judge could be convinced this was a denial of a variety of civil rights including due process. The primary argument would be that this equates to double jeopardy and that there is no due process that would take into account different circumstances.
In addition, you might be able to argue that it is a violation of the "full faith and credit" section of the Constitution since Texas is overriding another state's laws for a violation committed out of their jurisdiction. It is also possible that an effective argument could be made that this is an "ex post facto" law as i is applied to your case since you had already finished all of your punishment before they added the new one.
The problem, as you can imagine, is that it will not be a cheap process to argue this case all the way through the courts. That's why there doesn't appear to be any case law, because no one is willing to spend the money to try and change the law.
However, this is the only way to get the matter reversed.
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