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You may want to read this law review article to verify what I am telling you is true. I did a diligent search of FL law and did not find a specific statute that speaks to an employer's duty to keep an employee's medical information confidential. Since there is no statute [unlike in CT], you will have to rely on the common law of privacy right to make this actionable.
In Florida, the elements of a publication of private facts claim are: (1) the publication; (2) of private facts; (3) that are offensive; and (4) are not of public concern. Cape Publ’n, Inc. v. Hitchner, 549 So. 2d 1374, 1377 (Fla. 1989). So, if you can prove these elements, then you may have a claim against your employer.