Thank you. I can completely understand what this is upsetting. I have dealt with people like this before.
Unfortunately, though, from a legal standpoint, I'm afraid to say you would not typically have any recourse. Simply put, it is not illegal to be generally rude, mean or disrespectful. Such behavior only becomes unlawful when it relates directly to a legally protected trait, such as race, religion or gender, in which case it becomes a civil rights issue (i.e. yelling racial slurs).
In all other cases, rude and disrespectful behavior, while extremely unprofessional, just doesn't violate any employment laws. You can report the unprofessional behavior of your boss to HR or to their boss, and perhaps they will take some sort of action. But candidly, I would not advise that. Such a report would not be legally protected, meaning it would be perfectly legal for your boss to retaliate against you for it. In my experience, such complaints don't really serve any purpose anyway, and usually make matters worse.
All you can really do in this situation is attempt to address it on an interpersonal level. For example, by writing your boss an email explaining that if they have any concerns or criticism, that you would like to hear it directly. As much as I wish I could tell you otherwise, the law does not offer any assistance or protection.
I hope that you find this information helpful. Please do not hesitate to let me know if you have any questions or concerns regarding the above and I will be more than happy to assist you further.