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An employer can request re-certification, yes, where an illness is ongoing and expected to last beyond a 12 month period. Per the Department of Labor:
"In general, the employer may request the employee to provide a recertification no more often than every 30 days and only in connection with an absence by the employee. If a certification indicates that the minimum duration of the serious health condition is more than 30 days, the employer must generally wait until that minimum duration expires before requesting recertification. However, in all cases, including cases where the condition is of an indefinite duration, the employer may request a recertification for absences every six months. The employer may request a recertification in less than 30 days only if:
• the employee requests an extension of leave,
• the circumstances described by the previous certification have changed significantly, or
• the employer receives information that causes it to doubt the employee’s stated reason for the absence or the continuing validity of the existing medical certification.
They further note: "Annual certification - If the employee’s need for FMLA leave lasts beyond a single FMLA leave year, the employer may require the employee to provide a new medical certification in each new FMLA leave year."
However, the DOL also states that: "The employer must notify the employee each time a certification is required. The employer’s notice must be included in the written notice of FMLA rights and responsibilities given to the employee when leave is first requested. The employer may request certification at a later date if it questions the appropriateness of the leave or its duration."
Therefore, when you first requested leave for your medicall condition, the employer should have provided you notice of their right to request FMLA re-certification from you. If they didn't do that, there is an argument that you cannot be held accountable because you weren't aware of your duty to re-certify.
Beyond that, however, I think your employer is taking this to the extreme. If you haven't re-certified, the better course of action is for them to not count the day you took off as FMLA (perhaps you can use a vacation day or sick day for it) and then when you re-certify, continue on from that point.
You can read the fact sheet from the Department of Labor on medical certification under FMLA here.