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The Family Medical Leave Act would entitle an eligible employee to up to 12 weeks of protected job leave, which at this point you have exceeded. The only remaining job protection is that afforded through the Americans With Disabilities Act, which requires employers to "reasonably accommodate" disabled employees by allowing them to take job leave. The problem is that unlike the FMLA, the ADA does not specify a particular duration of protected job leave that employers must provide. Employers are only required under the ADA to provide that much time which is "reasonable," meaning what will not cause them to incur undue hardship. Usually this is a few additional weeks of protected leave, but given that you are talking about an absence in excess of 1 year, you have probably exceeded the length of time that you could reasonably argue is a required accommodation under the ADA.
You can certainly still raise the argument via written letter to your employer, and perhaps your employer will continue to hold your job out of fear of being sued. But ultimately if you are let go, the odds of a successful lawsuit are probably not too great. You can, at the very least, file a complaint with the EEOC, which will trigger and investigation and perhaps a mediation of your claim. But to pursue a lawsuit (the only remedy if the EEOC investigation process does not resolve your claim) would typically be impractical under the circumstances you describe.
As for your insurance, if your insurance is with a group health plan and your employer has 20 or more employees, you should be eligible for continued coverage through a federal law known as COBRA. Under COBRA, employers must allow employees to stay on their group plan if terminated from employment. The employee must pay the entirety of their premium, but this is usually still better than trying to get health insurance on the private market, which typically costs more than the group plan premium. See here for more information about COBRA.
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