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The answer here is governed by 29 CFR 825.313. That code section states:
(b) Unforeseeable leave. In the case of unforeseeable leave, an employer may deny FMLA coverage for the requested leave if the employee fails to provide a certification within 15 calendar days from receipt of the request for certification unless not practicable due to extenuating circumstances. For example, in the case of a medical emergency, it may not be practicable for an employee to provide the required certification within 15 calendar days. Absent such extenuating circumstances, if the employee fails to timely return the certification, the employer can deny FMLA protections for the leave following the expiration of the 15-day time period until a sufficient certification is provided. If the employee never produces the certification, the leave is not FMLA leave.
So, assuming that your present condition was unforeseeable, you would be correct in your understanding of the law that an employee in your circumstance has 15 days to provide sufficient certification. The code section should be cited to the employer along with an assurance that you are in the process of obtaining the certification.
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