Employment Law Questions? Ask an Employment Lawyer.
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Yes, there is a standard but it's not a standard that will be helpful to you here. The situations that you've described a legal when dealing with a salaried exempt employee.
If you work more than your normal allotment of time, the law doesn't require that your employer give you additional credit for that or allow comp time. However, if you work less than the normal allotted period of time, that can be deducted from your sick leave or vacation pay. If you miss an entire day, it can even be removed from your pay check.
I won't tell you it's fair, because it isn't, but none of the facts you outlined violate the Fair Labor Standards Act's treatment of salaried exempt positions.
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Salaried employees are paid their wage for a day if they work any hours that day, but no you don't get paid for days that you aren't there. They can't dock your pay for a few hours missed in a day though, unless those hours were being used for FMLA leave.
However, we don't even have to apply those rules when you are talking about taking away vacation or sick leave, because that isn't even consider docking of pay. The FLSA doesn't discuss vacation, sick leave or PTO use.
There is a link to the Department of Labor overview, which has additional links to specific statutes.
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